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Erie Pennsylvania City and County Guide
From Federal Writers Project - 1938

GENERAL INFORMATION

Location: On southern shore of Lake Erie; 100 m. east of Cleveland and 93 m. west of Buffalo; longitude 80 5 W.; latitude 42 7 N.

Railroad Stations: 1 2 1 W. 1 2th St. for Bessemer and Lake Erie R. R.; Union Station, W. i4th and Peach Sts. for New York Central R. R. and Pennsylvania R. R.; 2 1 1 E. 1 9th St. for Nickel Plate R. R.

Bus Stations: 12 N. Perry Sq. for Greyhound Lines, and West Ridge Transportation Co.

Airports: Port Erie: 7 m. W. on State 5, municipally owned. Erie County Airport, 1 2 m. W. on US 20, privately owned.

Ferries and Motor Launches: Ferries from the Public Steamboat Landing, foot of State St., to Waterworks Park on the Peninsula (round trip 25$); during summer months launches may be rented by the hour for tours and fishing in Presque Isle Bay and Lake Erie.

Taxis: Yellow Cab, W. i4th and Peach Sts., (30$ ist m., 5$ each additional % m.; hourly rate $1.50); Checker Cab, 316 E. 7th St., (30$ ist m., 5$ each additional l /$ m.; hourly rate $2.00).

Intracity Bus Line: Erie Coach Co. coaches operate to all points in the city; fare 10^; transfers without additional charge.

Traffic Regulations: Maximum speed 20 m. per hour between intersections; 10 m. per hour at intersections, and 15 m. per hour in school zones. Right and left turns permitted on green light; no turns on red.

Street Order and Numbering: From the bay front, the northern boundary of the city, streets are numbered from First in consecutive order. Even numbers are on west side of streets; odd numbers on the east side. House numbers in each block begin with a new hundred series. House numbering on east and west streets begins at State St. Even numbers are used on the north side of streets; odd numbers on the south side.

Accommodations: Hotels, inns, boarding houses, and tourist homes are available throughout the city. Lawrence Hotel, W. loth and Peach Sts., 400 rooms; restaurant, cafeteria, cocktail lounge, bar, ballroom, and ban quet room. Ford Hotel, State St. and N. Perry Sq., 400 rooms; restaurant, and bar. Wayne Hotel, 12 W. i2th St., 54 rooms; restaurant. Milner Hotel, W. 8th and Peach Sts., 40 rooms; Y. M. C. A., W. loth and Peach Sts.

Tourist Camps: Available on all main highways near Erie.

Shopping: Eries shopping district is centered at loth and State Sts., and extends north to yth St., south to i4th St., one block west to Peach St., and one block east to French St.

Theatres and Motion Picture Houses: The Community Playhouse, 128 W. 7th St. Plays with amateur casts and professional direction during winter season. Six motion picture theatres in business section, with 7 others throughout the city.

Information Service: Travelers Aid Society, Union Station, W. i4th and Peach Sts.; Y.W.C.A., 130 W. 8th St., Erie Chamber of Commerce, 801 State St.; Erie Motor Club (AAA), Lawrence Hotel, W. loth and Peach Sts.; Erie Manufacturers Association, Ariel Bldg., 8th and State Sts., Y. M. C. A., W. loth and Peach Sts.

Restaurants and Bars: Restaurants and night clubs are numerous in business section. Several of the restaurants specialize in fresh water sea foods. Most of the hotels have bars. Many of the night clubs offer floor shows, but much of the night life occurs in private clubs, to which admission may be gained through members.

Radio Station: WLEU, Commerce Bldg., i2th and State Sts.

Libraries and Exhibits: Public Library, S. Park Row and French Sts. (open 9-9 daily, 2-5 legal holidays; reading room 2-5 on Sundays); Art Gallery, second -floor of Library building, (usually open Saturday, Sunday, and Monday afternoons, closed to the public during July and August; free); Erie Public Library Museum, library building basement, (open 9-5 daily; free). Fish Hatchery and Aquarium, foot of Chestnut St., (open 9-4 daily; free); Glenwood Park Zoo, (open daily 9-5; feeding time 5; free).

Hospitals: Hamot Hospital, 2nd and State Sts.; St. Vincent s Hospital, W. 24th and Sassafras Sts.; Lake View Hospital, 136 East Ave.; Zem Zem Hospital, 1501 W. 9th St.

Recreation Facilities: Presque Isle Peninsula State Park, 4.5 m. W. on State 832; 3200 acres of woodland, lagoons, and picnic grounds, with 7 miles of guarded bathing beaches with bathhouses; wild life, skating, iceboating and hockey (see COUNTY TOUR 1).

Glenwood Park, Shunpike Rd. and Glenwood Drive; 115 acres, munici pally owned, with a 9-hole golf course, tennis courts and baseball field; modern zoo building with many animals, and picnic grounds.

Waldameer Park, 4 m. W. on State 5 and 832; a commercial amusement park, bathing beach, ballroom, concessions, amusement devices, restaurant offering music, dancing, floor show, and refreshments.

Athletic Fields: Erie Stadium, 26th and State Sts.; major athletic events with flood lights for night contests; ice skating in winter.

Roosevelt Field, W. 23rd and Cranberry Sts.; scholastic baseball, foot ball, tennis.

Glenwood field, Glenwood Park; baseball field, tennis courts, golf course.

Strong Vincent High School Athletic field, W. 8th and Washington Sts.

General Electric Field, Lawrence Park; baseball, soft ball, and amateur boxing.

Swimming: Presque Isle Peninsula State Park beaches, 4.5 m. W. on State 832.

Waterworks Park, maintained on the Peninsula by the Erie Waterworks Dept. Only locker and checking service on the Peninsula. Pay station telephone.

Shorewood Beach, 10 m. E. on State 5; cottages.

Manchester-on-the-Lake Beach, 8 m. W. on State 5.

Waterworks Pool, at City Filtration Plant, foot of Chestnut St.

Not far from Erie are other swimming places, such as Lake LeBoeuf at Waterford, Conneaut Lake at Edinboro, and Eagley s Grove on Lake Erie i m. north of North Girard. These resorts also afford boating and fishing.

Hunting and Fishing: For rules and regulations governing hunting and fishing in Erie County, apply to Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, Board of Game Commissioners, and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, Board of Fish Commissioners respectively. Small game abounds; rabbit, squirrel, pheasant, duck, and geese. Streams of the county are stocked with game fish. Lake waters abound in pike, perch, and game fish. Hunting license costs $2.00 for residents, non-residents are charged the same amount as Pennsylvanians are charged in the non-resident s home State. Fishing li cense costs $1.50, plus collector s fee of 10 cents. Non-residents are charged in the same manner as non-resident hunting license applicants. Licenses are procurable at the County Treasurer s office, Erie County Courthouse.

ERIE: A GUIDE TO THE CITY AND COUNTY

Golf Courses: Glenwood, Glenwood Park, intersection State 505 and State 99; a 9-hole municipal golf course (daily fee 35$ for 9 holes; 50$ for all day).

Erie Golf Course, 6 m. S. on State 99; an i8-hole municipal golf course ( all day; $16 for season; a fee of $17 entitles a member to play on both Glenivood and Erie Golf Courses) .

Lake Shore Golf Club, 8 m. W. on State 5; 18 holes; members and guests only.

Lawrence Park Golf Club, Lawrence Park on State 5, 9 holes (green fee 7 ).

Kahkwa Golf Club, 5 m. W. on US 20; 18 holes; members only.

Tennis Courts: Erie Tennis and Country Club, Willis Rd. near State 97; members and guests only.

Lake Shore Golf Club tennis court, Hardscrabble Blvd., State 5 (small fee) .

Free Courts:

Glenwood Park.

Academy High School, 28th and State Sts.

Strong Vincent High School, 1330 W. 8th St.

East High School, 1151 Atkins St.

Technical High School, W. loth and Sassafras Sts.

McKinley Park, 23rd St. and East Ave.

Riding: Algeria Riding Academy, 4.5 m. W. on State 5, saddle horses for riding on Peninsula bridle trails ($1 per hr.).

ERIE: AN IMPRESSION

Erie, in the far northwest corner on the tiny strip of Pennsylvania s lake shore line, has developed from a trading post fort to a ranking industrial and recreational center largely because of three great physical attributes: Lake Erie with its shipping facilities and moderating effect upon the local climate; Presque Isle Bay with its landlocked harbor affording safe anchorage for shipping; and, more recently, Presque Isle Peninsula State Park with its seven miles of sandy beaches and hundreds of tree-shaded picnic areas offering a cool, breeze-swept recreation spot for western Pennsylvania.

The lake has figured prominently in the vast program of expansion of this country as a whole, and more intimately in the history of the city, but its great economic value is twofold. The presence of this large body of water tempers the climate, prolonging the normal growing season for this latitude, making possible the production of grapes and other fruit, a substantial part of Erie s resources today. The income derived from fruit-growing directly increases the purchasing power of the farmer, and therefore the mercantile income of the city. Many of the city s leading industries are dependent upon the favorable transportation facilities of the lake, or upon the abundant supply of fresh water. Less important economically, but of major interest to Erie citizens is the physical beauty of the lake as a background for their homes and a setting for a constantly changing panorama of cloud and storm and sunset.

The city, lying along a glacial moraine, looks northward across the bay and the long, embracing arm of the peninsula that forms and protects the bay. This harbor has long been considered, by Erie citizens, as an index of national business activity a busy, changing scene in summer indicates a period of prosperity; anchored, idle ships mean hard times. In winter, however, the bay provides a refuge from the lakes swift, vicious storms. And, although most of the commercial fishing is done in the lake, it is the bay that provides safe harbor for the fishing fleets and a base of operations where, along the shore, are docks and warehouses and home.

In the summer the Peninsula becomes a playground, not only for the people of Erie, but for much of western Pennsylvania. Long, sandy beaches, tree-shaded bridle paths, hundreds of well-equipped picnic groves at tract caravans of cars with thousands of pleasure-seekers. Regardless of the weather in the city, or farther inland, there is always a fresh, tempering breeze along the Peninsula. On a late summer afternoon, cars line the long, looping drive; bright-colored bathing suits mark the favorite beaches; smoke rises through the trees at the picnic groves; laughter carries far across the water. Erie is earning its reputation as the picnic city and enjoying it. Yet one whose attention centers wholly on these recreation areas will carry away a false impression, for the life of the year-round population is rooted in toil.

The streets of the city are wide and tree-lined, with homes set deep in wide lawns the predominating style. Several of these older houses have been included in national architectural surveys for their grace of design, but the public buildings are not notable from an architectural standpoint. However, the brisk modernism of the new Federal Building is in refreshing contrast to the prevailing ornate Victorianism of public and business structures. There are no skyscrapers, and only a few tall buildings, perhaps because, from its beginning, Erie has had ample room in which to spread, so that even the business district has a spacious look.

This quality of spaciousness is all the more evident in several of the residential areas. Along West 6th Street, in Frontier Place and the Glenwood Park districts attractive homes of varied architectural design are set in landscaped lawns. Even in the east side section there has been little of the standardization of row houses though the houses are set closer together there is always a patch of surrounding lawn and a few trees on most of the plots. Southward, as the terrain becomes more hilly, the town merges with the country; homes are predominately one- acre suburban residences with flower and vegetable gardens set behind modest frame homes.

Although industry plays an important role in the life of Erie it does not dominate the physical landscape. Much of the population is foreign- born or first-generation American. Rambling along the streets, the visitor will hear the accents of German, Polish, Italian, and Russian residents, drawn to the city in the periods when their brawn or skill was at a premiumn in its mills and factories. The distinctive characteristics of the various nationalities easily identify the sections of the city in which they are concentrated.

Erie, thanks to its three great physical assets, the lake, the bay, and the peninsula, is a pleasant place in which to live and looks it.

THE CITY AND ITS SETTING

THE city of Erie is situated on the southern shore of Lake Erie in the northwestern tip of Pennsylvania, almost equi-distant from New York and Chicago. About 52 miles from east to west, and 4 miles north to south, its area of 2o l / 2 square miles is bisected by State Street, the main thoroughfare. Erie occupies a central position in respect to the county, being 16 miles west of the New York State line, 25 miles east of the Ohio State line, and 19 miles north of Crawford County.

The city is 1 1 3 feet above lake level and built on a plain, with a gradual slope from the lake to the first ridge of foothills south of the city limits. This plain is a broad tract of land two to three miles in width, which extends along the entire waterfront of the county.

The physiography of the section is distinct from any other in Pennsylvania. It possesses three principal characteristics which are not found in any other section of the State: lake bluffs, a succession of lake plains arising like steps from the lake shore, and a series of ravines or gorges formed by streams that empty into the Lake.

The last glacial period of the eastern Great Lakes area dammed the St. Lawrence River outlet and the lake level rose above its banks, forming new escarpments and bottoms. Many smaller lakes were formed along the old lake shore and as the ice receded, the water levels lowered, leaving dry beaches where the old lakes once existed. Many of the deep gulfs in the vicinity of Erie were formed in this manner. The streams were swollen to a high level and as they fell with the retreat of the ice, deep ravines and gulfs were cut. A topographical cross section from the lake south shows a profile of a broad step or cliff, a broad flat a mile or more in width, ending in another sharp rise of terrain.

Across the bay from Erie is Presque Isle Peninsula, a sandy formation 7 miles in length and about a mile wide. The only one of its kind on the southern shore of Lake Erie, it was formed by sand, gravel, and shingle washed by water action from the bluffs and accumulated at this point in a re-curved sandspit. Some of the bluffs have receded six feet a year over a period of years. Sand and gravel washed eastward by the predominant west wind are deposited along the shore line of the peninsula. The accumulation of sand is constantly working the peninsula eastward at a rate of a mile every 200 years.

The cottonwood trees and grasses on the peninsula form hedges as the dry sand is blown up from the beaches and piled up along them. The eastern shore thus extends slowly, and as more sand gathers, the beach is surrounded and becomes a lagoon. Some of these lagoons fill with drift ing sand, and in time nothing is left but a sandy plain between the trees and the beach. These sandy plains and lagoons, which once were a part of the lake proper, are plainly discernible near the eastern end of the peninsula.

The region is not rich in mineral resources. Two paleozoic formations are unusual: the vergent flags and the vergent shales. The vergent flag formation is a fine-grained gray sandstone in thin layers, separated by alternative bands of shale. The vergent shales are a mass of gray, blue, and olive shale and grayish brown sandstone.

A low grade of bog ore was once mined in Mill Creek Township near Erie, and was used in the foundries for a time. Stone quarries have been worked in other parts of the county, but Erie was noted only for its brick clay and gravel. A superior grade of building and foundation brick was made from this clay.

Gravel banks on an extensive scale have been opened within the city limits. The gravel is of excellent quality, and is used in the manufacture of concrete blocks and in concrete building work. Because of the scarcity of stone, gravel is used locally instead of broken stone for concrete highways, and as a base for asphalt pavements.

Wells drilled in the area have yielded little petroleum, but they usually have provided sufficient gas for farm and household use.

The county lies within the common isothermal lines of Pennsylvania, but because of the marked influence of Lake Erie on the climate there is little sultry weather during the summer months. This condition is some what offset by the frequency of cloudy days and strong winds during the winter, spring, and fall months.

According to U. S. Weather Bureau records, Erie is the second cloudiest city in the country. In 1936 there were 4,300 hours of sunshine of a possible 8,764, this figure varying from a low percentage in winter to a high of 85 percent in July. The mean annual rainfall is 31.65 inches. The average yearly temperature is 48.8. Recordings of over 90 and below 10 are unusual. The refreshing, almost continuous, breeze from the lake during the summer months has made Erie a summer resort city. The peninsula is another contributing factor to the balanced climate. Storms from the west often strike the peninsula and veer from their course, missing Erie completely. It is not unusual to have a light rain or snow in Erie, and a much heavier storm a few miles away, while the mercury descends even lower away from the immediate shores of Lake Erie.

HISTORY

THE FRENCH

Tradition connects the names of Etienne Brule and Sieur de Champlain with early exploration in the Erie district, an explora tion party of four French missionaries of the Recollet branch of the Franciscan order, 12 French laymen, and four Indians, led by the Reverend Joseph LeCaron, made the first recorded expedition to the Erie region in 1615. The region was usually referred to in French journals as the Niagara valley. They found a tribe of Indians living on the southern shore of Lake Erie, known as the Cats or Neutral Nation. The French called them Eries.

The Erie Indians resisted French efforts to civilize them and received these Franciscans with distrust. The Jesuit priests who later endeavored to establish a post among them were repulsed and all efforts were abandoned until the valley was in possession of the Senecas.

The Seneca Indians wrested control of the rich valley from the Eries in a bloody war which culminated in 1654 with the extermination of the Eries. The Senecas were friendly to the French, and the first attempts at European colonization began shortly afterward. Pere Jacques Marquette spent several days at Presque Isle in 1673 with Louis Joliet. They made the first important chart of Presque Isle Peninsula and the Bay, and later explored the other Great Lakes and the Mississippi River.

In 1679 Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, set out for the western wilderness to establish military posts along the Mississippi and extend the bound aries of New France. He founded a French colony near the outlet of Lake Erie into the Niagara River and built the Griff on, the first sailing vessel launched on Lake Erie.

In the bitter race between the French and English to expand their boundaries and wrest control of the rich western country from each other, the French extended their activities into the Mississippi Valley, and the English moved toward the Ohio Valley. Three savage wars were waged between the rival powers, King William s, 1689-97; Queen Anne s, 1702- 1713; and King George s, 1744-48, but none of them directly affected the region.

When King George s War was ended in 1748, the Ohio Company was organized by 20 Virginians, among them Augustus and George Washington, to develop land in the Ohio River Valley. Christopher Gist and ten other families settled in what is now Fayette County, Pennsylvania, under authorization of the Ohio Company. The French authorities at Quebec immediately dispatched troops to garrison the forts at Presque Isle, LeBoeuf, Venango, and Duquesne.

The first fort was established at Presque Isle in 1753, when 250 men under Sieur Marin were sent from Montreal to build and garrison a fort and establish a French colony. They built the fort on the west bank of Mill Creek, about one hundred yards from its mouth, adjoining the grounds of the present Soldiers and Sailors Home. A French village consisting of one hundred families, a Catholic priest, a school master, and a grist mill was established. Land was cleared and cornfields cultivated.

George Washington was selected by Governor Dinwiddie of Virginia to notify the French they must withdraw their soldiers from the territory west of the Allegheny Mountains, as it rightfully belonged to the British. Washington started out on his journey in 1753 with instructions to communicate with the friendly Indians at Logstown and to proceed to the French headquarters and demand an answer to Dinwiddie s letter. He was accompanied on his wilderness journey by Christopher Gist, Jacob Van Braam, John Davison, and by the Indian chiefs, Jesakake, Tanacharison or Half-King, and White Thunder.

The Indians went along because, as one of their chiefs said, "The English claim all the land on one side of the river, and the French all the land on the other side of the river, so the Indians wonder if the only land they own is at the bottom of the river." The Indians were angered at the French answer to this conundrum when Tanacharison had protested to the French commander at Fort Presque Isle. "The Indians," haughtily replied the commander, "are like flies and mosquitoes, and the number of the French as the sands of the sea shore. Here is your wampum. I fling it at you."

Washington was treated with great courtesy by Captain Jean Coeur at Venango (Franklin) and advised to see the commanders of Forts Presque Isle and LeBoeuf. At Fort LeBoeuf, Commander St. Pierre and Captain Reparti of Fort Presque Isle held a council of war, giving Washington and his men an opportunity to make notes concerning French fortifications and the dimensions of their fort. According to their notes, the fort had one hundred men, exclusive of a large number of officers, fifty birch canoes, and seventy pine canoes.

Through the artifice of many presents and frequent resort to the wine jug, the French successfully evaded any direct committal of their intentions. Washington, in his Journal, comments on their dilatory tactics:

"I cannot say that ever in my life I suffered so much anxiety as I did in this affair. I saw that every strategem which the most fruitful brain could invent was practiced to win the Half -King to their interests, and that leaving him there was giving them the opportunity aimed at. I went to the Half-King and pressed him in the strongest terms. He told me that the commandant would not discharge him until the morning. I then went to the commandant, and desired him to do their business, and complained of ill treatment, for keeping them, as they were part of my company, was detaining me. This he promised not to do, but to forward my journey as much as possible. He protested that he did not keep them, but was ignorant of the cause of their stay; tho I soon found it out; he promised them a present of guns, etc., if they would wait until morning."

After many difficulties, Washington, then but a youth, finally completed his mission, although its main objective was not achieved. While the French treated him with all deference and respect, they politely pointed out that they were under orders from a superior officer and had no choice but to carry out these orders, requesting the English to communicate with their superior in Canada. However, he did manage to obtain vital information concerning French strength at Forts LeBoeuf and Presque Isle.

The Senecas were alarmed by the establishment of a French garrison at Presque Isle and sent a delegation to Marin at LeBoeuf (Waterford) to inquire whether he was "marching with banner uplifted or to establish tranquillity." His tactful answer that he intended to help them "drive away the evil spirits (the English) that encompass the earth," appeased the Indians and they zealously assisted the French. The French through out exercised more tact than the English in their dealings with the Indians, treating them courteously and giving them numerous presents, whereas the English aroused Indian resentment because of their superior attitude and coldness. DeVaudrail, in a letter from Montreal, August 8, 1756, wrote: "The domiciliated Massassaugues of Presque Isle have been out to the number of ten against the English and have taken one prisoner and two scalps and gave them to cover the death of M. de St. Pierre."

The strategic importance of the Presque Isle site was soon apparent. The portage to LeBoeuf was short, and from there canoes readily could be paddled down French Creek and the Allegheny River to link the French forts. General DuQuesne, commenting on the importance of the fort in a letter to the French Minister, July 6, 1755, wrote: "The fort at Presque Isle serves as a depot for all others on the Ohio. . . . The effects are put on board pirogues at Fort LeBoeuf. ... At the latter fort the prairies, which are extensive, furnish only bad hay. ... At Presque Isle the hay is very abundant and good. The quantity of pirogues constructed on the River LeBoeuf has exhausted all the large trees in the neighborhood." His letter continued with high praise of the harbor at Presque Isle. The French planned to establish a chain of forts from Quebec along Lakes Ontario and Erie and the waters of French Creek and the Allegheny River to Fort Duquesne, and from there along the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers to the Gulf of Mexico.

The English were aware of the French strategy and took all possible steps to checkmate them. A plan was advanced to block the French in their attempts at expansion and control. If they could control the pass at Niagara, it would make it impossible for the French to communicate with their garrison at Presque Isle except through a tedious and difficult passage. If the fort at Presque Isle could be taken, the French then could send no supplies or provisions to Forts LeBoeuf and Duquesne. English control of Presque Isle would enable them to transport troops and materials much more speedily and economically than by sending an overland expedition from Virginia to Ohio.

The English finally managed to win some of the Indian tribes over to their side in 1757 and the French were compelled to maintain a garrison of one hundred men at Presque Isle to ward off English and Indian attacks. General Braddock had lost his life in his futile attempt to capture the French forts in 1754, but General John Forbes was successful in driving the French from four Pennsylvania forts in 1759. The French abandoned Fort Presque Isle after a dramatic parting with their Indian friends, promising an early return. But French domination of the Erie country was over.

THE BRITISH

The French and Indian War closed in 1760, leaving the western country under British control. Presque Isle was the last of the French forts south of Lake Erie to be abandoned and when the English came into this section in 1760, Colonel Bouquet rebuilt the fort, and ordered the forts at LeBoeuf and Venango put in good condition.

The Indians resented English attempts to expand and, because of the threat of Indian massacres, no attempts were made to attract settlers to Presque Isle. A band of Senecas, during Pontiac s Conspiracy, captured the forts at Presque Isle and LeBoeuf in 1763 and roamed this district unmolested until the British lost the western country to the United States under the peace treaty of 1783.

Despite the treaty, the English were reluctant to abandon their forts and maintained garrisons at some of them, realizing the importance of Fort Presque Isle to their dreams of a western dominion. In order to hamper American settlement they instigated the Indians to organize raiding and marauding parties.

Pennsylvania acquired title to the northwestern part of the State in a treaty with the Six Nations in 1784. A dispute arose over the Triangle lands in 1785 between Pennsylvania and New York. Major Andrew Ellicott for Pennsylvania and James Clinton and Simeon DeWitt for New York were appointed to establish the boundary lines between the States. They surveyed the line from the Delaware River to Lake Erie and the western boundary of New York was fixed at 20 miles east of Presque Isle. A triangular tract of land was left which was not included in the charter of either State and which Massachusetts and Connecticut also claimed.

A later treaty was made between Pennsylvania and the Six Nations in 1789 giving jurisdiction over the Triangle Lands to Pennsylvania. Gen. William Irvine was impressed by the fine natural harbor at Presque Isle and interested a number of citizens in trying to obtain it for Pennsylvania. New York, Massachusetts, and Connecticut ceded their claims to the United States. In 1792 the Triangle Lands, embracing 202,187 acres, were sold to Pennsylvania for $151,640.25. To adjust Indian claims, Pennsylvania paid them $2,000 and the United States settled for $1,200. Chiefs Cornplanter, Half Town, and Big Tree were paid an additional $800.

The Six Nations were still displeased with the arrangement and displayed open hostility. Joseph Brant, a powerful Mohawk chief, tried to organize the Indians in a war, which was averted only through the efforts of Cornplanter. An Indian council was held at Buffalo early in 1794 in protest against the Presque Isle settlement. Another council was held at LeBoeuf on July 4, 1794, when the Indians repeated their intention to prevent the establishment of a garrison at Presque Isle.

The Indians remained sullen in spite of attempts to pacify them, and in dulged in sporadic skirmishes with the settlers. General Wayne, who had established a garrison at Erie in his western warfare with the Indians, finally crushed the backbone of Indian unrest in the Battle of Fallen Timbers on the Maumee River in 1794 and the Indians were quick to come to terms. Wayne completed a treaty of peace with the western tribes at Greenville, Ohio, in 1795.

Gen. William Irvine and Maj. Andrew Ellicott had been appointed to construct a road from Reading to Presque Isle in 1794, and to lay out a town at Presque Isle. Albert Gallatin, later Secretary of the Treasury, was appointed to assist them. Due to Indian trouble, it was necessary to send troops to protect the settlers, but preparations for the establishment of a town at Presque Isle were suspended because of possible hostilities with the Indians. The settlers openly voiced their indignation until Governor MifHin made it plain that he was acting under orders from President Washington.

Captain Denny arrived at LeBoeuf in 1794 with a detachment of troops under instructions to remain there until further orders. Major Ellicott revealed the hostile attitude of the Indians in a letter: "The Indians consider themselves our enemies and that we are theirs. From this considera tion they never come near the garrison except as spies and then escape as soon as discovered."

After strenuous American protests, the British eventually abided by the treaty of 1783 and abandoned all claim to the western country, including all garrisons, forts, and military posts. A treaty of peace concluded at Canadaigua in 1794 removed all final obstacles to the laying out of a town at Presque Isle. Ellicott had laid out the town of Waterford in 1794, and the following spring proceeded to Presque Isle where he laid out the town of Erie in June, 1795. Ellicott was later to redraft L Enfant s plan of Washington, D. C.

THE AMERICANS

Capt. Russell Bissell, with two hundred men from Wayne s Army, landed at Presque Isle in the spring of 1795 and built two block houses on the bluff overlooking the harbor entrance, just east of the mouth of Mill Creek. The men cleared land for a cornfield, built a sawmill to supply lumber for the barracks occupied by the troops, and within a year completed a warehouse and stockade.

The first settlers to locate permanently within the county were Thomas Rees and John Grubb, who arrived here in the spring of 1795. Later in the same year William Miles and William Cook, with their wives, made a settlement in Concord Township. Col. Seth Reed, accompanied by his wife, and two sons, arrived during the same year and took up lands in McKean Township. Other settlers at Erie during 1795 were Rufus S. Reed, and George W. Reed, James Baird and children, Mrs. Thomas Rees, and Mrs. J. Fairbanks. Among some of the outstanding men who followed them in the next few years were Capt. Daniel Dobbins, Judah Colt, Timothy Tuttle, Jacob Weiss, and William Wallace.

The region was a dense forest at the time the first settlers arrived.

HISTORY

Louis Philippe, Duke of Chartres and later King of France, was enter tained at the mouth of Mill Creek in 1795 by Thomas Rees and was greatly impressed by the beauty of the wilderness scenery.

Migration to this section was slow during the first five years after laying out the town because of Indian opposition. The entire population of the Triangle in 1800 was 237, with 81 at Erie. After 1805, the county began to be settled more rapidly, and Erie had a population of 394 in 1810. Most of the settlers prior to 1800 came from New England and New York. Subsequent migrations were also from the same sections.

Erie County was made a separate county in 1800 with Erie designated as the place for holding court. The first election in the county had been held at Erie in 1798 while it was still part of Allegheny County. Erie was incorporated as a borough in 1805, and the first election was held on May 5, 1806. The boundaries of the borough extended from the bay south to i zth Street and from Chestnut Street to Parade Street, practically forming a one mile square.

The first act of borough council at their meeting May 9, 1806, was to fix the pay of Regulators, or streets commissioners, at one dollar per day. All the meetings were held at the village inn. In the 1806 election a burgess, five councilmen, and a constable were elected. The newly elected officers met at the Buehler Hotel and appointed a town clerk, three street commissioners, and a treasurer. The first ordinance passed by the borough council was made at the first meeting and provided for the examination and regulation of Second Street from the west side of Parade Street to the east side of French Street to the north side of Sixth Street, the marking of street intersections, driveways, and other matters pertaining to the town plan.

Erie was still a straggling village of around 400 inhabitants when war with England was declared in 1812. Western settlers looked with alarm at their well organized enemy across the lakes. Erie, while regarded as one of the most important points on the south shore of Lake Erie, had only a handful of buildings at the time, and the territory between Buffalo and Sandusky was sparsely settled. The British were in a favorable position to strike a fatal blow at any time.

Capt. Daniel Dobbins acquainted President Madison with the dangerous situation and was authorized to build a fleet. The construction of ships was begun under great handicaps, lack of finances, materials, and men. A young naval lieutenant, Oliver Hazard Perry, was commissioned to take command of the Lake Erie fleet. He arrived in Erie March 27, 1813, and personally supervised the building of the two largest ships.

Considerable difficulty was experienced in getting the two large ships, Lawrence and Niagara, over the sand bar at the entrance to the harbor, but they were finally lifted over and the fleet sailed out August i2th with about four hundred men, their objective being San dusky where they were to meet Gen. William Henry Harrison s army.

Perry s startling and brilliant victory in the Battle of Lake Erie, September 10, 1813, routed the British from the Great Lakes and turned the eyes of the world upon Erie (see COUNTY TOUR 1). The citations of Perry and his men, by a grateful Congress, and the wild acclaim of the entire Nation, was reflected directly upon Erie. Large numbers of militia, marines, and sailors stationed at Erie strutted around the town, basking in the glory of the victory, the only time in naval history that an entire British squadron had been made to surrender. Wild rumors of marauding Indians and British expeditions marching to burn Erie lent an air of tense excitement and confusion to the town.

GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT

The first mode of travel was by foot, horseback, or water. The roads were rough, muddy, and impassable at certain times of the year. When they were somewhat improved around 1810, the two-horse wagons were introduced. These wagons were crude affairs covered with cotton cloth stretched over hickory ribs, furnishing shelter for the entire family and its goods. Supplies for Perry s fleet were transported in flat boats to Waterford and from there by way of the turnpike to Erie.

The opening of the salt trade in 1800 did much to develop Erie as a port and a transportation center. The salt was shipped from Buffalo to Erie, then carried to Waterford by ox teams, where it was transported down French Creek and the Allegheny River on flatboats to Pittsburgh. During the height of the trade, it was estimated that one hundred teams of oxen were constantly on the road between Erie and Waterford trans porting salt. Vessels leaving Buffalo for the West were loaded principally with salt from 1805 to 1810. Six thousand barrels of salt were registered at the Customs House in Erie in 1808, and the figure reached a peak of 18,000 in 1811.

Some dissension arose as to whether the salt trade was beneficial to the county. An "Old Salt-hauler" gave his views in the Erie Mirror, January, 1809, stating that, "The farmers were obliged to haul salt to procure the comforts, if not the necessities of life, such as sugar, tea, coffee, wearing apparel, etc., as salt seemed to be the current medium of trade during the embargo; it was the only commodity they had for market or exchange, the greater the traffic the more the farmers progressed in the improve ment of the soil."

The freightage charge from Buffalo to Erie was 87 1 / 2 $ per barrel, with a 12 1 / 2 charge for storage. It cost $1.50 a barrel to haul the salt from Erie to Waterf ord and $ i from there to Pittsburgh. The receipts to the transporters aggregated $42,000 in one year and the trip from Salina, N. Y., to Pittsburgh took from four to six months. The salt trade became so important that at one time salt was the only circulation medium in the section, with oxen and other commodities being paid for in salt. The discovery of salt wells nearer Pittsburgh was responsible for the abandon ment of the Erie trade in 1819.

Sawmills, gristmills, tanneries, and breweries were erected all over the county and prospered until shortly after the War of 1812. Every stream that could develop power was used to drive from one to a dozen wheels. The county at that time was covered with forests but, with the gradual cutting of the timber, the streams dried up and the mills fell into disuse.

The early settlers were a hardy lot of people who lived in a frugal manner. Mush, corn, bread, and potatoes were the principal foods, with flour, pork, and sugar looked upon as luxuries. Any meat that graced the table came from the pioneer s backyard, for the county abounded with game.

Mills were far apart and the roads through the woods mere pathways. Small loads of grist were carried on the backs of horses or men, and it was not unusual to see men carrying bags of grain on their backs from Waterford or farther to be ground at Erie. Few families had stoves and cooking was usually done over open fires. Beds were made up by laying blankets over boxes or rude frames. Every house had a spinning wheel and many were provided with a loom to make home-made clothing. Liquor was distilled on most farms and few families were without a bottle for the safety of guests that might be bitten by the poisonous snakes reported but seldom seen in the county.

The pioneer s home was usually a log cabin of unhewn logs laid one upon the other, the crevices filled in with mud. As conditions improved, structures of hewn timber were erected, mortar displacing mud. Wall paper was unknown and many houses were without window glass. As saw mills increased in number, frame buildings of a better character were substituted for the log cabins. An occasional brick or stone structure was regarded as an architectural marvel.

At the "raisings," when a new residence or barn was to be erected, neighbors and friends from miles around were invited. Liquor and cider flowed freely at these combination community work and merry-making events.

The dense forest covering the county abounded with deer, wolves, bears, panthers, rabbits, foxes, raccoons, squirrels, oppossums, minks, skunks, martins, and some wild cattle or buffalo. All except the smaller game, and one or two small herds of deer are extinct today. Deer were so abundant that hunters lay in wait for them at numerous deer licks within the county and slaughtered them mercilessly. The wolves destroyed so much stock that a bounty of twelve dollars a head was offered for them. Pigeons, ducks, geese, pheasants, partridges, and turkeys were plentiful, and the lakes and streams teemed with fish.

A disturbing factor in the pioneer s life was the Indians. They were generally friendly to the settlers except when under the influence of whiskey, but the ease with which they obtained liquor from the traders made them a constant menace. Most of these red men were good-natured friends of the white man, bearing such curious names as Half Town, Cheat, Twenty Canoes, Laughing Thief, Surly Bear, and Stinking Fish, usually descriptive of a possession or personal characteristic; occasionally, as with our nicknames, they marked a childishly frank and brutal humor.

The city gradually began to expand from its early location around Third and French Streets westward. Third Street was the most important business thoroughfare until the early iSzo s when it was superseded by French Street, which remained the busiest until the i860's.

Immigration of the Pennsylvania Germans set in around 1825, followed by Irish and German immigrants ten years later, boosting the population to 1465 in 1830, more than double that of the previous decade.

A branch of the United States Bank of Pennsylvania was established at Erie in 1837 and sold $200,000 worth of stock in one day. This, coupled with the previous surveying of the canal to Beaver, the charter granted for a railroad to Sunbury, and Government work in building piers and deepening the harbor, gave strength to the belief that Erie was destined to become a great city. Prices of real estate skyrocketed, one lot purchased for $10,000 selling a month later for $50,000. The speculation lasted until 1839, when bank failures throughout the Nation caused a serious panic.

Industries which later were destined to play an important role in Erie's development started during this period. The fishing industry, which later gave Erie the name of being the largest fresh water fishing port in the world, began with the establishment of the Shaw Fish Company in 1821. The establishment of the Hinkley, Jarvis Company in 1833 started Erie on the road to industrial importance. This company was the forerunner of the heavy manufacture of engines and boilers in latter day industry.

The opening of the Erie and Pittsburgh Canal in 1844 brought a boom to business in the section (see TRANSPORTATION). The canal did a profitable business for thirty years and lapsed quietly, despite the protests of the canal men, when the Erie and Pittsburgh Railroad bought it to eliminate competition.

The oilcloth industry began in Erie in 1840 and soon there were a dozen such plants in operation. They were shortlived, however, dying out during the Civil War industrial scare.

Erie obtained its city charter in 1851, a short time before it began to vie with other sections of the country in the sometimes mad construction of railroad lines in all directions. Short roads were built, later to be consolidated into larger lines. The wild period of railroad construction reached its peak with the so-called Railroad War, in which Erie citizens vigorously protested what they considered a death blow at the towns growth (see TRANSPORTATION).

Despite the Civil War and its effect of frightening away capital investment and industry, the decade from 1860 to 1870 saw the largest numerical increase in population to that time, when Erie gained from 9,414 to 19,646. The first foreign immigration really began during this period with small numbers of Germans, Italians, and Poles coming in. Railroad consolidation began to be felt and national expansion westward bulged over into this territory. The village of South Erie was incorporated as a borough in 1866 and consolidated with Erie in 1870.

When oil was first discovered at Titusville in 1859, Erie again saw an opportunity to become a large city. Twenty refineries were set up in a short time and production mounted from 325 barrels to a peak of 15,092 barrels in two years. The peculiar structure of the railroads and their schedule of rates apparently discriminated in favor of a few and the local oil companies were discouraged by being overcharged by the roads. Refinery after refinery moved out, and another boom had hit Erie and left it without visibly affecting its economic status.

The oil boom of the 6o s brought a large demand for drills, fittings, pipe and oil well machinery, and dozens of little shops that had located here with the rise of Northern industry prospered. The factories were first set up only to satisfy local consumption; among these were oilcloth factories, bakeries, breweries, packing houses, stove works, oil refineries, and clothing and textile plants. Erie was termed "the home of cockroach industries" because it was a city of small shops. The tendency toward small scale production was affected by the manner of development of the city s economic life. Craftsmen set up little plants and slowly expanded them in line with the demand.

Commodity prices doubled and tripled during the Civil War period be cause of the issuance of script by the local authorities and "greenbacks" by the Federal Government.

Until 1862 employees rarely received as much as a dollar in cash for their labor. Workers were paid mostly in printed due bills good for merchandise. The State passed a law prohibiting the issuance of these due bills, but the New Furnace Company circumvented the law by issuing metal tokens, called pewteringtum. The due bills, which were used even during the construction of the Erie and Pittsburgh Canal, were called "blue crackee," colloquially called "crackee and be d d." Uncertain fluctuations of National currency during this period made the blue crackee often preferable to National currency.

Life in the county during the yo s changed from the colorful, romantic life of the boatmen to the uncertain one of politics. Erie became politically minded during the 1850 $ and attained sufficient prominence in 1875 to entertain the only State assemblage of either party when the Democrats convened in Erie. The citizens took their politics seriously, and were often moved to vigorous action. Newspaper owners and editors were political czars, and their offices the center of all prominent politicians. On several occasions irate citizens raided newspaper plants and destroyed them in the frenzy of a political campaign.

Erie continued to expand after 1870 and almost tripled its 1870 popula tion during the next thirty years. The gradual influx of immigrants and the steady increase in industrial activity were the primary factors in this development. The town was caught between the Buffalo trading area, with its superior communication and transportation connections with the Atlantic coast, and Cleveland, the western railroad division head and refinery center. Erie could scarcely hope to compete on equal terms with these cities. But its transportational advantages still existed and much of the overflow trade from the East and West found its way here.

In 1885 Erie adopted the electric trolley system, being the second city in the United States to do so. With the organization of interurban and suburban lines in all directions shortly afterwards, a consolidation of the county s population drew the people into a more compact trading group.

While there were no outstanding local events of major importance, exclusive of National development, many industries located in Erie and expanded. The Hammermill Paper Company came to Erie in 1898 and probably marked the first step in bringing nation-wide attention to Erie's industries. Other industries which had been struggling through the formative years of 1870 and 1880 were firmly entrenching themselves to participate in the golden industrial eras soon to follow.

By 1900 Erie had become nationally known for the manufacture of its engines and boilers, which were shipped to all parts of the world. The establishment of a branch of the General Electric plant in 1911 once again focused attention on the advantages of Erie s location, and its large labor reserve.

War clouds hanging over Europe brought a flood of immigrants to the section. Thousands of Italians, Poles, and Germans thronged to Erie as laborers in its many industries. When America entered the World War, many of the local plants were easily adapted to the manufacture of munitions, and Erie knew a prosperity that it had never known before. Workers in crowded factories toiled day and night, drawing fabulous wages in comparison to the pre-war period. Money flowed freely, and there was a further expansion of industry.

By 1920 Erie had a population of 93,372. The Mill Creek flood of 1915, with a loss of 25 lives and property damage of $2,000,000, had, some what paradoxically, led to certain city-wide improvements. A flood control tube was built, many new sewer lines were laid, streets and parks were beautified, and a school building program was begun that gave Erie three well-equipped high schools.

The significance of industry in Erie s development may be seen from a comparison of the total numbers of employees and Erie s population. In 1900, with a total number of 10,579 employees, Erie had a population of 52,733. Twenty years later the total number of employees had increased to 24,783, or an increase of more than 140 percent, while its population had increased to 93,372, or only 66 percent.

On the momentum of the post-war boom Erie hit an all time mark of $40,000,000 in total wages and salaries in 1920, a figure that was not again equalled until the banner year of 1929. After 1929 Erie s "durable goods" industries were adversely affected by the Depression. However, a measure of recovery has been achieved (1938), and today Erie is third in the diversity of industries for cities of its size.

TALES AND LEGENDS

COMPETITIVE sports were played between Indian tribes before the coming of the white man. Foot races, wrestling matches, and weight throwing contests were quite common. Baseball had its antecedents in a game the French named la crosse. Called "boggataway" by the Indians, it is probably the oldest sport in America, and the game furnishes a legendary background for a war between the Eries and Senecas which re sulted in the virtual extermination of the Erie tribe in 1654.

For years a feud had existed between the two tribes, a feud which had never broken into open hostilities because of the peaceful influence of an Indian queen, Yagowanea, who was respected and revered by all the Indian tribes living in the New York-Pennsylvania region. Attempts of the Eries to embroil the Senecas in war had often been halted by this wise old woman, and it was not until the Eries insulted the Senecas during a boggataway game that open warfare became inevitable.

The game was played with a curved hickory stick, the loop of which was netted with gut and rawhide. The Eries lost a contest to the Senecas, and immediately challenged them to a foot race, intending somehow to humiliate their rivals. The winners were to scalp the losers with their own tomahawks. Again the Senecas won, but they refused to carry out the bloody bargain.

A few weeks after the boggataway game, the legend says, a group of Erie warriors went to Yagowanea with an unjustified grievance against two Seneca chieftains who were visiting in the Eries camp. In a moment of absentmindedness the queen found the Seneca warriors guilty of the trumped-up charge and gave the complaining Erie warriors permission to execute the Senecas, thus bringing about the Erie-Seneca War. The Iroquois Confederation joined with the Senecas, and the Eries were completely routed. Remnants of the once powerful tribe were split into small groups and distributed among tribes friendly to the Senecas.

There are several stories concerning the fall of Fort Presque Isle to the Senecas during Pontiac s Conspiracy in 1763. One of these, exemplary of the red man s cunning, states that an Indian appeared at the Fort and told the British commander that his canoe, laden with furs from Detroit, had sprung bad leaks and could proceed no further. He asked the commander if he wished to purchase the furs, as the Indians were anxious to return home and would sell the furs at a sacrifice price. The commander was suspicious, but the Indian answered his questions readily. Still somewhat distrustful, the commander left the fort with two men to inspect the furs, giving instructions not to admit anyone to the fort until he returned.

An hour later, several Indians laden with furs appeared at the gate. They asked the garrison to open the gates so that they might deliver the furs according to the commander s instructions. They said that the commander would be back soon. As soon as the gates were opened the Indians dropped their furs and drew tomahawks, which had been concealed in their clothing, and held the gates open long enough to permit a waiting army of hidden Indians to enter and massacre the British garrison.

One of the stories told about Gen. Anthony Wayne and the Indians, which is probably more fiction than fact, tells of the time when Wayne and two of his men in a canoe were fired upon by an Indian war party on shore. Wayne and his men paddled vigorously in an attempt to get out of range of the bullets. But a large Indian war canoe loaded with warriors brandishing tomahawks suddenly appeared, blocking their progress and heading them towards shore.

Caught between the two hostile parties, Wayne quickly ordered his men to overturn the canoe. While they held on, he swam under water to the Indian war canoe and, coming up underneath it, gave it a mighty shove, dumping its cargo into the Lake. He snatched a tomahawk from one of the Indians and attacked them so viciously that they swam away, leaving Wayne and his two soldiers to continue their journey unmolested.

So great was the Indian fear of Wayne that, even after his death, some Indians abided by a treaty they had made with the settlers, saying that the ghost of Wayne had appeared menacingly before them. It is regrettable that the whites did not show as much respect for this American hero, for when his son disinterred Wayne s body in 1 809 in order to transport it to Radnor for burial he found that some culprit had pilfered Wayne s remaining good boot.

Early borough ordinances reflect the rude civilization of the frontier. One dated 1810 called out every man to dig out stumps in the main streets. Another ordinance required convicted drunkards to dig three stumps from the town s streets as punishment.

Money was scarce among the early settlers. Few of them were able to employ labor in accomplishing a difficult task. It became the custom among the settlers to combine their labor in mutual assistance. Thus, when a family built a log house, neighbors from the vicinity gathered on an appointed day, felled trees, and hauled them to the site of the new house. Entire families gathered for these events. The women prepared the food, and gossiped as they knitted socks, underclothing, and scarves for their husbands and children.

In the cutting of trees a suitable clearing was provided for a garden and cornfield. Brush and undergrowth were removed and piled in heaps for burning. Stumps usually stood for two or three years after the land was cleared, gradually drying out, and becoming seasoned for fuel.

Following the long day s labor, the settlers gathered at the fireside of the new house to drink home-distilled whisky and recount tales of their daily lives. As the evening progressed a squeaky fiddle would be brought on and a square dance begun. Until early morning, the younger members of the group swung and swayed to Money Musk, the Virginia Reel, and Turkey in the Straw. The marriage of a young couple furnished sufficient excuse for another logging and house building. Few settlers could get along without the help of neighbors in the early days.

Characteristic of the early pioneer life in this section is a tale of a "wild boar" hunt. The pioneers were always chasing wolves, panthers, and bears, so it did not strike them as unusual when one man reported that his cornfield was being ravaged by wild boar. With equal resignation they would have picked up their rifles if a Bengal tiger or an African lion had been reported in the vicinity. They soon tracked the boar down and shot him.

The hunting party took it to a neighbor s home, dressed it and prepared for an epicurean revel. Hardly had the feast begun when another settler appeared and claimed that the boar was a pig, and his own pig at that, which had strayed off his premises a year ago. The killer insisted on his rights and a free-for-all fight followed. The minor riot was finally settled with the original owner receiving a quarter of the "wild boar" and the feast continued on its merry way.

Erie first attracted National attention in 1813, when Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry arrived to take command of the Great Lakes fleet. The period of the building of the fleet and immediately following the great victory in the Battle of Lake Erie can properly be called the golden era of Erie s history. The influx of sailors and militia gave a boom to the straggling town, and the intoxication of victory filled the air. The town became known as the "mother-in-law of the American Navy," and weddings and engagements were many.

The sailors were as quick to fight on land as on sea. Many disputes arose about the Battle of Lake Erie, after Perry s departure, and some questioned Captain Elliott s conduct during the engagement. Quarrels broke out between Perry s and Elliott s adherents, and many duels were fought. In one of the duels, Midshipman Senat, who commanded the Porcupine during the battle, was killed by Acting-Master McDonald. Some people maintained that the dispute was occasioned by the number of buttons on McDonald s suit, but most of their contemporaries agreed that the argument arose over Elliott s wisdom in hanging back with his large ship, the Niagara, leaving Perry s flagship, the Lawrence, to be riddled by the British.

Two marines were shot during this period for desertion, and a seaman was hanged to the yard-arm of the Niagara. James Bird was one of the marines tried for desertion and executed. A sergeant, Bird had been placed in charge of a storehouse, which post he deserted. He was found guilty by a court martial and the sentence approved by the President. The story goes that Perry, who had left Erie, ordered a pardon to stay Bird s execution, but that it arrived after he was shot. One of the most popular of the flood of songs which followed Perry s victory was the Ballad of James Bird, a lugubrious ditty of Bird s heroism and sad end that was often recited at meetings and in barrooms.

One of the stories coming down from the period following Colonel Drake s discovery of oil in 1859 centered around "Coal Oil Johnny" Steele. Steele, an orphan, found himself rich overnight when oil was struck on his farm. He went on one of the most glorious spending sprees Northwestern Pennsylvania had ever seen. It was nothing unusual for him, so the story goes, when the proprietor of a hotel insisted that Johnny s party had become too boisterous, to buy the hotel and continue the party.

Another story deals with one of his unusual habits hiring a cab and tacking ten dollar bills all over the upholstery. Driving to Erie, he would stop in front of a bar room, pluck a ten dollar bill from the upholstery, order a drink for everybody, have one himself, and drive off to another spot. At the close of the evening s roistering all money left in the cab was given to the driver. Steele soon found himself with neither friends nor money. But as luck would have it, he came on a forgotten $20,000 deposit in a bank, and having learned his lesson well began to lead a wiser and saner life.

NATIONALITY GROUPS

THE French village of 100 families established by French explorers near Fort Presque Isle in 1753 was abandoned six years later, ending the first European effort to colonize the Great Lakes area. The first American settlers arrived in the region in 1795, coming mainly from New England, New York, and southern Pennsylvania.

Foreign immigration began with the arrival of a large number of Ger mans in 1830. The Finns came in 1850, followed by the Italians in 1860. In 1865 a few Poles began to arrive, driven from Europe by floods and low wages. Many of these immigrants were so poor that they had to depend upon relatives already in the country or upon steamship and land companies for their passage money. In the post-Civil War period, thou sands of them were brought in to build railroads and work in coal mines. Although many of the newcomers were penniless, they represented a good investment to land speculators and industrialists. Immigrants continued to arrive until 1914. Armenians, Hungarians, and Turks came in small numbers, but many Italians, Germans, and Poles arrived.

According to recent figures, the three largest National groups in Erie are the German, with approximately 30,000; Polish, with 20,000; and the Italian, with 18,000.

A city directory published in 1853 reveals that Germans predominated in the building trades. The Germans were quick to exert their influence on the city. Those of the Catholic faith banded together, breaking away from the business section then on French street, to concentrate in the vicinity of German and Parade Streets, between 8th and 9th Streets. They built a frame church there in 1833 and the present St. Mary s Church on the same location.

The Protestant group organized St. John s Lutheran Church in 1835 and, two years later, the Salem Evangelical Association for Germans in America was founded. A German language newspaper, the Zuschauer, came out in 1851. This paper became, in turn, the Freie Presse, the Tageblatt, and the present (1938) Deutsche Zeitung. In 1862 the Erie Liederstafel, the first German singing society, was formed; six years later a Turnverein was organized.

At first the German people favored the neighborhood of German and Holland Streets, between 9th and loth Streets. Now they are spread throughout the city, predominating in the East and West 2 6th Street districts. Many of their stores originally were community centers, where only the German language was spoken. Societies were established, and after considerable agitation, a German Free School was built. The school was abandoned when the public school system had become firmly entrenched in the city.

The Civil War did much to break down the barriers of misunderstand ing and distrust among nationality groups. There was a prompt response on the part of Germans to the call to arms and a regiment went from Erie, commanded by Colonel Schlaudecker, with several German officers. The patriotic spirit of the Germans in the war was the most important single factor in welding together the nationalities. A German, P. A. Becker, was elected mayor in 1883. Two of his outstanding acts in office were the introduction of electricity in street lighting and the construction of a new City Hall.

The Italian influx began in 1860, but did not become pronounced until 1914. They came from Abruzzi, Campobosso, and Naples in the south; and from Rome, Pisa, and Tuscany in the north; with some from Sicily and Calabria. Many of the Italians from southern Italy and Sicily are concentrated in the district between i5th and i8th Streets, west of State Street; and between Myrtle and Raspberry Streets. Those from northern Italy have settled along East 25th, 26th, and 27th Streets and from Pennsylvania Avenue to the southern city limits.

The census of 1870 lists but 18 Poles, a figure which was increased in 1930 to 20,000. St. Stanislaus Church, East i3th and Wallace Streets, one of the outstanding religious edifices in the city, was begun in 1883. It is attended largely by persons of Polish extraction and is a center for their community activities. The largest group of Poles is near St. Stanislaus Church. A second group is in the section from East Avenue to the eastern city limits, between 6th and i2th Streets, while a third group is in St. Hedwig s parish on East 2nd, 3rd, and 4th Streets.

Other nationalities are scattered throughout the city: Russians largely around East Front Street, and on Parade Street, between 2nd and 3rd Streets; the Slovaks on Pennsylvania Avenue from 8th to mh Streets; and the Greeks on mh, i4th, and Peach Streets.

Citizenship and literacy classes conducted in various night schools have done much toward the assimilation of the foreign born. So successful has this been that the second and third generations are completely American in speech and manner.

Erie s population in 1930 was 115,967. The number of foreign born and of first generation Americans in Erie in 1936, according to records of the International Institute, is shown in the following table:

Armenian
Canadian (includes French Canadians) 2,481
Chinese 9 Czech 91 Danish 362 Dutch 104 English 1,831
Finns 280
Germans 30,000
Greek 201
Hungarian 700
Irish (Free State and Northern Ireland) 3,310
Italian 18,000
Lithuanian 221
Mexican 95
Norwegian 1 8 1
Polish 20,000
Russian 175
Scotch 500
Slovak 2,5 1 2
Spanish 6 1
Swedes 3,126
Swiss 1 6 1
Yugoslavia (includes Croatians, Serbs, Slovenes, Albanians) 192
All others Brazilians, Arabians, Egyptians, Assyrians, Flemish, Maltese, Letts, Welsh, and French 199
Total 87,050

INDUSTRY AND COMMERCE

ERIE ranks third among cities of from 100,000 to 500,000 population in the diversity of its manufactured products. In 1936 it had 277 manufacturing plants, with an invested capital of more than $58,176,000. The value of the yearly output was more than $97,643,800, with 21,078 employes and an annual payroll totalling $29,129,100.

Among the principal manufactures are power shovels and power hammers; electric and steam locomotives; writing, printing, and roofing papers; machine and hand tools; rubber specialties; boilers, boiler controlling equipment; sterilizers for hospitals; electrical specialties; building hardware, plumbing supplies; heating equipment; kitchen equipment; and castings of iron, steel, and non-ferrous metals. Erie imports pulpwood from Canada; crude rubber from the Far East; linens from Ireland; and other articles for direct consumption from virtually every country of the world.

Although Erie has few consumer-goods industries, it has long been a great producer of heavy or durable goods. Its steam boilers and engines, electric locomotives, forgings, power equipment, gas meters, gasoline pumps, and oil well supplies are shipped to all parts of the world. It has a large traffic in iron ore, grain, and coal, and is a leading fresh water fishing port.

The first industry established in what is now Erie was a sawmill, built at the mouth of Mill Creek in 1796, by Capt. Russell Bissell of the United States Army. The mill supplied lumber for barracks which were built to house troops sent here to protect the settlers. The mill dam was just east of Parade Street near East 4th Street.

A second sawmill was built in 1800 by John Cochran near i6th and State Streets. Cochran added a gristmill in 1801, the first in Erie. In 1806 Robert Brotherton built a sawmill on Hill Road, also near State Street, and in 1807 or l8 8 another sawmill was erected on Mill Creek, at the intersection of E. 8th Street, by Thomas Forester and William Wallace. About 1 8 10 Rufus S. Reed, later to become Erie s first citizen, built a gristmill nearby; somewhat later, he constructed a distillery, the first in the city.

More gristmills and sawmills were built during the early iSoo s, and several woolen mills were erected in the 1830*5. Today no sawmills, and only two gristmills are operating in Erie. Textile mills are no longer an important part of the city s economic life.

A brickyard was built in 1803 just east of Parade Street between 2nd and 3rd Streets. Bricks from this yard were used in the construction of the first brick house in Erie County, still standing on German Street between Front and 2nd Streets. Other brickyards were established later, but only one is still in operation.

Early in the century a tannery was built by Ezekiel Dunning, on Holland Street between 5th and 6th Streets. Later known as Sterrett s tannery, it continued in operation until 1852. In 1805 another tannery was built, and for years the tanning business was carried on extensively, but by 1900 the industry had ceased to exist in Erie.

A brewery was built in 1815 by Maj. David McNair on Turnpike Street, and a distillery was added in 1823. Many breweries were built later, of which only two remain in business. At one time small distilleries were found in almost every neighborhood of Erie, but in 1830 a great temperance wave swept through the county, and whisky became unpopular. Erie distilleries thereafter disappeared rapidly; there are none in the city now.

The industry that launched Erie on the road to industrial importance was an iron foundry, established in 1833 by Hinkley, Jarvis & Company on the west side of State Street at nth Street, and later known as the "Old Furnace." The foundry smelted iron from bog ore mined near the head of Presque Isle Bay, transported it by wagons to Waterford, and from there to Pittsburgh by river boats. Castings, principally for stoves and plows, and sawmill machinery were also manufactured. The industry continued under various names until it became part of the Germer Stove Company.

The manufacture of engines and boilers, important in the development of Erie s economy, was begun in 1855 at the Presque Isle Iron Works, on E. l0th Street between Holland and German Streets. In 1905 the plant was acquired by the Erie City Iron Works.

With the discovery of oil at Titusville in 1859, a number of refineries were established, 15 having been in operation at one time. This business gradually fell away in the iSyo s, because of various factors, perhaps the most important being a lack of cooperation by the transportation companies.

The building of Great Lakes boats in Erie dates from the sailing vessel, Washington, in 1798, and later many large steamboats were constructed. John D. Paasch began building vessels in 1866 at the foot of State Street, and the business is still carried on by his son, Frederick.

Fishing has long been one of the leading industries of Erie, and the annual catch frequently exceeds that of any other port on the Great Lakes. Thousands of tons of blue pike, white fish, and perch are shipped annually. Ciscoes, once caught in large quantities, are now quite rare.

Lumber was an important factor in lake trade for years; today it has been superseded by the coal, grain, iron ore, coke, and pulp-wood trade, and by an extensive package freight business. Boatloads of automobiles arrive in the early spring for transhipment to eastern markets. Erie has adequate and modern equipment for handling these products, including several grain elevators and package freight warehouses.

WHOLESALE AND RETAIL TRADE

Approximately 2,000 retail establishments in Erie have a gross business of about $50,000,000 annually. The retail area, within a radius of 50 miles, contains a population of 300,000 persons, and the city s retail stores compare favorably in variety of merchandise with establishments in other American cities of like size. There are approximately 160 wholesale business places, with estimated sales of $30,000,000 annually.

The first retail store in Erie, a two-story log building, was erected in 1796 by Col. Seth Reed at the southwest corner of 2nd and Parade Streets. The Reeds conducted a store and tavern in the building until it was destroyed by fire in 1799. Rufus S. Reed, son of the founder, then rebuilt the structure and maintained the business there for many years.

Third Street was the main business thoroughfare until the early 1900' s, when it was superseded by French Street, which, until the i86o s, continued to be the busiest thoroughfare in the city, its importance having been enhanced by the fact that the post office, the leading business houses, and the principal hotels were convenient to it.

Today, the retail business center is on State Street between 7th and 14th Streets. Peach and French Streets and the intervening cross streets from 7th to 14th are part of the principal downtown trading district. The next most important business sections are Parade Street from 7th to 13th Streets, and from 24th to 28th Streets; and Peach Street from 6th to Streets and from i8th to 26th Streets.

TRANSPORTATION

As EARLY as 1753 the advantages of Erie in regard to transportation were recognized by the French, who sent an expedition from Montreal to build a fort that was to be a vital link in a chain extending to the Ohio Valley. Erie s calm, landlocked harbor, which Duquesne's letter of July 6, 1755, to the French Minister of Finance, described as one that the largest vessels could enter in safety, is still the central and determining factor in the city s transportation system.

Erie Harbor is protected by a natural breakwall, which provides a harbor of adequate depth and anchorage facilities for the largest of Great Lakes carriers. Loading and unloading facilities are modern; a network of tracks makes possible the immediate conjunction of water and rail traffic. Three unloading machines expedite the handling of ore from boats a io,ooo-ton boat can be unloaded in less than 10 hours. During 1935 more than 600 freight-carrying boats entered and left Erie harbor, carrying mostly iron ore, coal and coke, wheat, package freight, and pulp wood.

Erie is the division headquarters of two large railroad systems The New York Central, and the Pennsylvania and is a key point for passenger and freight traffic of the Nickel Plate R. R. and the Bessemer and Lake Erie R. R. Erie is also the headquarters of one large inter-state trucking concern and a distribution point for a number of others. Its location makes it an important point in lake and rail shipments. Large ore boats bring cargoes from the upper lakes to Erie, whence the ore is shipped by rail to the Pittsburgh and Youngstown steel districts. Coal shipped here by rail from the Pennsylvania mines is transported up the lakes by boats; and package freight from all sections of the country is brought to Erie by rail, to be transported by way of the cheaper medium of water to Cleveland, Detroit, Chicago, Buffalo, and Canadian ports.

EARLY MODES OF TRAVEL

The first road was built in 1753 by the French from Fort Presque Isle to Fort LeBoeuf. Known as the French Road, it was the only one in the section for more than 40 years. In 1796 Maj. Andrew Ellicott surveyed the Susquehanna and Waterford Turnpike from LeBoeuf to Curwensville, in Clearfield County, by way of Meadville and Franklin, so that a continuous road from Erie to Philadelphia could be built. In 1797 Judah Colt built a road from Freeport on Lake Erie to Colt s Station, the first in the county after the American occupation.

In Erie s early years all articles of commerce were landed on the beach near the mouth of Mill Creek, where three storehouses were erected in 1815. In the early days of steam navigation, boats landed freight and passengers at the lighthouse piers at the channel entrance to save time.

In common with other sections of the United States, the region was a dense forest at the time the first settlers arrived. The first mode of travel was by foot, horseback, or water. The roads were rough and muddy until about 1810, when they were widened and gravelled. Then came the two-horse wagons, crude affairs covered with cotton cloth stretched over hickory ribs and furnishing shelter for family and goods. In 1812 supplies for Perry s fleet were transported in flat boats from Pittsburgh to Waterford, and from there by way of the turnpike to Erie. Another mode of travel was by ice. It was not unusual for the early astute business man to buy a barrel of whisky at Buffalo and haul it over the lake ice on a sled.

The Erie and Waterford Turnpike (a toll road), now US 19, was completed in 1809. The first toll gate was near the southern city limits of Erie, the second on the summit between Erie and Waterford. A toll road from Erie to Meadville by the way of Edinboro was completed in 1852. This road, now State 99, was floored with planks. The Erie and Waterford plank road, now State 97, had been constructed over an entirely new route in 1851.

These roads crossed swamp areas, and, in order to make them passable in bad weather, they were "corduroyed." This paving consisted of half logs, roughly squared, laid side by side across the road. The chinks were filled with small poles and gravel. Though quite rough according to modern standards, this kind of road made possible the transportation of freight in the region. Plank roads, a refinement of the corduroy, were made of heavy planks eight inches wide by three inches thick, laid crosswise of the road on supporting sills of heavier timbers or logs. Plank roads were considered more durable and cheaper to maintain than macadam roads.

Toll roads were abandoned because of their unpopularity with farmers who had to use them to haul their produce to market. They boycotted the roads by constructing trails and bypasses, and, in one instance, a group pulled down the toll gates. The gates were not rebuilt, and the last toll road, the Erie and Waterford, was turned over to the township in 1868.

A weekly mail route, covered by horseback, was opened in 1801 between Erie and Pittsburgh by way of Waterford and Meadville. In 1806 a weekly mail route was started between Buffalo and Erie. The stage left Buffalo on Saturday noon and reached Erie on Monday at 6 p. m., requiring 54 hours to make the go-mile journey. In 1827 a line of four- horse coaches was placed in daily operation between Cleveland and Buffalo, by way of Erie.

An incident of transportation in those days is related in Sargent s Pioneer Sketches about Judah Colt, who later became superintendent of the Erie and Pittsburgh Canal. When a young man, Colt was traveling through Herkimer County, N. Y., and was stopped near Praker's Bridge by Colonel Praker, who told him he must not travel on Sundays; that it was his duty to arrest Colt if he continued the journey.

Well, said Colt, If I have to stop, I must; but I would like to get on three or four miles farther to some friends, where I expect to stop, as I am about to be taken down with the smallpox and I already feel symp toms of its coming on.

What! said the old Dutchman, You coming down mit de smallpox?

Yes.

Vail, den you must not stop here/

Then you ll have to give me a pass/

Yes, but I write no English. You write de pass in English and I sign it in German.

Colt wrote a check for $1,000 and Praker signed it. The next morning Colt went to the bank, where the check was promptly paid, and resumed his journey to Erie.

Two weeks later Praker went to town, and the banker said, Mr. Praker, we paid your check for $1,000/

My check for $1,000! I does not know about that/

Come in, it will show for itself/

The check was produced, Praker scrutinized it and exclaimed, I see, it be that d d Yankee s smallpox pass!

In that day there were no telegraphs or railroads, and Colt was un molested."

The authors piece de resistance in a summary of the situation follows:

"And onward thus Colt travels for Erie, Through forest, o er hill, valley and stream, not weary. But this man Colt was a sharp undertaker In playing his smallpox game with Dutch Praker.

$1,000 was a big fortune at that day,

$1.25 per acre for land to pay.

Across the State Line into Pennsylvania he crosses,

At Erie he stops to raise young Colts and horses.

Large streams from little fountains grow, From this $1,000 rich did Colt grow. It has been said, and it must be so, That there are tricks in trades, you know."

The transportation of salt was a leading industry until 1819. Salt was mined at Salina, N. Y., hauled to Buffalo in wagons, then shipped by vessel to Erie. From Erie it was sent to Waterford by ox teams, and then transported on flatboats down French Creek and the Allegheny River to Pittsburgh the same course the French followed in 170 (see HISTORY).

LAKE NAVIGATION

The first sailing vessel on Lake Erie was the Griffon, 60 tons, built in 1679 on the Niagara River by Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, who sailed the vessel to Green Bay, Wisconsin. No record has been found of any other sailing vessel on the lake until about 1766, when the British launched four small ships used chiefly for carrying troops and army supplies.

In 1795 the only sailing vessel on the south shore of Lake Erie belonged to Capt. William Lee of Chippewa, N. Y. This ship made infrequent trips from Buffalo to Erie. Oars were auxiliary equipment. The first sailing vessel built on the south shore of Lake Erie was the 36-ton sloop Washington, constructed in 1798 at the mouth of Four Mile Creek, east of Erie. The Good Intent, built by Capt. William Lee and R. S. Reed at the mouth of Mill Creek in 1799, was the first vessel launched at Erie.

Prior to the War of 1812 a dozen or more vessels, averaging 60 tons, composed the entire merchant fleet on Lake Erie. Salt was the chief article of freight, although some business was done in transporting furs from the far west to Buffalo.

The Walk-in-the-Water was the first steamboat to navigate Lake Erie. Of 300 tons, it was built on the Niagara River, launched in May, 1818, and made regular trips between Buffalo and Detroit, stopping at Erie on each trip. The first steamboat launched at Erie was the William Penn, 200 tons, in May, 1826. By 1826 three steamboats and from two to ten schooners cleared from Erie harbor every week.

The Vandalia, 150 tons, built at Oswego, New York, and brought through the Welland Canal in 1842, was the first boat on Lake Erie operated by a propeller. Other propeller vessels soon appeared, and this type replaced the old style side-wheel steamboats.

CANALS

The Erie Canal of New York, now called the New York State Barge Canal (not to be confused with the Erie-Pittsburgh Canal), opening a low cost transportation system from New York City to Buffalo, New York, by way of the Hudson River to Troy, New York, thence by canal to Buffalo, brought an influx of immigration to the western states. Following the opening of this canal large numbers of Germans landed at Erie. Their original destination had been Cincinnati, Ohio, and the lower Ohio Valley but, attracted by the Pennsylvania farm lands, they remained in the Erie region and became an important section of the population.

The opening of the Erie-to-Pittsburgh Canal in 1844 greatly increased the lake trade at Erie. Daily steamboat service was established between Erie and Buffalo in 1846. Completion of the Lake Shore Railroad to Toledo, Ohio, in 1853, greatly curtailed immigrant travel by way of canal and lake, and the steamboats depended mainly upon freight to and from the upper lakes.

In the i840's the State spent more than $4,000,000 in the construction of the canal from Pittsburgh to Lake Erie by way of the Ohio, Beaver, and Shenango Rivers.

In 1843 the State had refused to appropriate the estimated $211,000 required to complete the canal. The Erie Canal Company was then in corporated. The State ceded to the company all the work that had been done, on condition that the corporation finish and operate the canal. The additional $211,000 was subscribed by Erie merchants. The first boats to reach Erie were the Queen of the West and the R. S. Reed on December 5, 1844. The first boat carried passengers, and the second brought coal, iron ore, and merchandise. The canal did a thriving business and materially assisted in the development of trade.

The mule-drawn canal boats stopped at any point along their line to discharge or take aboard passengers and baggage. The canal did a profitable business for 30 years. With the coming of the steam railroads, the Erie & Pittsburgh Railroad bought it to eliminate competition and let it lapse quietly into oblivion, despite the strenuous protests of the canal men.

RAILROADS

A charter was obtained for the Erie & North East Railroad Company on April 12, 1842. Stock in the railroad company was sold largely in Erie, and construction of six-foot wide gauge track was completed in January 19, 1852, and the first train steamed into Erie. This track, now standard gauge (4 ft. S l / 2 in.), is now part of the main line of the New York Central through Erie County.

The New York & Erie Railroad Company had been formed to build a road from Dunkirk, N. Y., to the Pennsylvania line, and a second road was projected by the New York Central from Buffalo, by way of Fredonia, to the State Line. At this period railroads were being built rapidly in all sections of the country, and the common practice was to build short lines and later sell them at a high profit to continuous lines that merged the shorter units.

Although tentative efforts had been made by citizens of Erie as early as the year 1831 to have a railroad extended from Buffalo to Erie, the first organization of a company for that purpose was not effected until April 12, 1842, when the Erie and North East Railroad Company was organized. Surveys were completed in 1849 and contracts were let for construction of a six foot gauge track to be laid from Erie to the New York State line. The first train entered Erie January 19, 1852.

In 1852 the Franklin Canal Company completed a railroad from Erie to the Ohio State Line, connecting with a line from Cleveland. The first train from Erie to Ashtabula, Ohio, was run on November 23, 1852. The Pennsylvania State law at that time required all roads entering from the east to have a gauge of 6 feet or 4 feet 8 1 / 2 inches. All from the west were required to have a gauge of 4 feet 10 inches. This necessitated a break and transfer at Erie.

The change of gauge at Erie was a serious inconvenience to the railroads, and on November 17, 1853, the Erie & North East Company entered into a contract with the New York Central whereby the former was to alter the gauge of its track to 4 feet 10 inches, making a uniform gauge from Buffalo to Cleveland. The change, completed on February i, 1854, enraged the people of Erie, who had visualized their city as the Lake Erie terminus of the New York & Erie Railroad instead of a way station. Crowds of citizens, reinforced by Mayor Alfred King and 150 special constables, tore down the bridges over State and French Streets, ripped up the tracks across all streets east of Sassafras Street, and pelted officials of the railroads with rotten eggs whenever they appeared on the streets. The enmity of the voting public towards the railroads became so intensethat in the elections of 1854, 1855, and 1858, party lines were obliterated, and the main political issue was the railroad trouble.

Erie s angered citizens were successful in preventing the changing of track gauge for a time, necessitating the transfer of passengers and freight between Harborcreek and Erie by stages and wagons. The city was condemned by railroad travelers. Horace Greeley, one of the inconvenienced travelers, declared in the New York Tribune: "Let Erie be avoided until grass grows in her streets." Another outbreak occurred in 1855, in which several bridges were destroyed and tracks torn up. State and Federal officials were compelled to intervene. The controversy was carried eventually to the Supreme Court, which decided that the road gauge as constructed by the Franklin Canal Company was illegal, and repealed the company s charter.

A new charter was granted by the legislature on condition that the company, known as the Cleveland & Erie, should subscribe $500,000 to the Philadelphia & Erie Railroad and extend its track to the harbor at Erie. The charter of the Erie & North East Company was also repealed in 1855, but was restored in April, 1856 upon condition that the company expend $400,000 towards building a road from Erie to Pittsburgh.

A few years later, the Erie & North East and the Buffalo & State Line Railroads were consolidated under the name of the Buffalo & Erie Rail road. In the early i86o s the Cleveland & Lake Erie Railroad was consolidated with the Cleveland & Toledo Railroad, and later this company was merged with the Michigan Southern, placing a continuous line under one management from Erie to Chicago. The road became known as the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Railroad Company. In 1869 the Buffalo & Erie was merged with this organization, which was owned by the Vanderbilts, with Chauncey Depew as legal and business representative. This system is now the New York Central Railroad.

The Bessemer and Lake Erie Railroad, a United States Steel Corporation subsidiary, runs from Erie to East Pittsburgh. It was the latest railroad to enter Erie County and was opened in 1892. It was originally known as the Pittsburgh, Shenango, and Lake Erie Railroad. It follows the route of the old Erie-Pittsburgh Canal. Its tonnage consists largely of heavy freight between the Pittsburgh steel district and the Great Lakes. According to Interstate Commerce Commission figures, it carries more tonnage per mile of track than any other railroad in the world.

The first passenger depot in Erie was a rude brick structure built in 1851. It was replaced by the Union Depot in 1864, which was replaced by the present (1938) Union Station in 1927.

LOCAL AND INTERURBAN TRANSPORTATION

The first franchise to operate horse-drawn street cars was issued to Heman Janes and Associates on March 12, 1866. A horse-drawn bus was operated in 1867 on the main streets by William Loesch. The Erie Pas senger Railway Company began to operate horse cars in 1868 on virtually the same streets as Loesch s bus line. Loesch s franchise was sought by others, but he would not sell. One morning he found all his horses dead from poison, and unable to operate that day, he had to forfeit his charter, as one of its clauses called for operation each day with forfeiture as the penalty.

Erie was the second city in the country to have an electric trolley system, when, in the early spring of 1885, the first electric passenger car made its trial trip on State Street. The first rails were wooden stringers with steel straps. The cars were operated by the Erie Passenger Rail ways Company which was reorganized in 1888 as the Erie Electric Motor Company.

On April 13, 1906, the Buffalo & Lake Erie Traction Company took over all the intercity electric lines, and in August of the same year acquired the suburban and interurban lines east of Buffalo Road to Westfield, New York, and on New Year s Day, 1909, the company opened a through line to Buffalo. This line was bought in 1924 by the Buffalo & Erie Railways Company, which was forced out of business in recent years.

The Erie Street Railways Company, successor to the Erie Electric Motor Company, operated the last electric trolley car in Erie. On December 7, 1925, the Erie Coach Company placed the first motor bus in operation and gradually increased this type of service until May 13, 1935, when the last street car made its final trip.

The first bus line to operate in Erie County was the West Ridge Transportation Company in April 1923 from Erie to Conneaut, Ohio. The Great Lakes Stages, now part of the Greyhound Lines, entered the county in 1927, with bus service to Cleveland. Two years later it established a line to Buffalo, and now operates interstate busses through Erie.

Besides the privately-owned airport at Fairview, a modern airport, Port Erie, was completed in 1937 by the Works Progress Administration and the city. Air mail service was inaugurated on May 19, 1938.

RELIGION

CHRISTIANITY was brought to the Erie region in the late summer of 1615, when about 20 Frenchmen landed on the shore of Presque Isle (see HISTORY). They planted a large wooden cross in the soil, sang the Te Deum, and the Reverend Joseph LeCaron, a Franciscan friar, celebrated Mass with an upturned canoe for an altar, in a clearing near some Indian huts.

Father Le Caron tried to convert the natives to Christianity, but his efforts and those of other friars resulted in scant success. The Indians worshipped evil spirits and practiced sorcery, and believed they would go to a happy hunting ground at death. The efforts of missionaries were also hampered by the fact that the Eries were nearly always at war with the Senecas, a neighboring tribe in New York State.

Medicine men, as the sorcerer-priests of the Indian tribes were called, incited so much opposition to the missionaries that no attempt was made to found a Catholic congregation in Erie until 1753, when the Reverend Luke Collett, a Franciscan, was sent from Montreal as chaplain of the French troops who built Forts Presque Isle and Le Boeuf. After the French evacuated these forts in 1759, there is no record of Catholic activity in Erie until near the end of the century.

Because of its early military and political history, the Catholic Church in Erie County has been subject to four different ecclesiastical jurisdictions. During the period of French occupancy and until 1763, they were under the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Quebec. From 1763 until 1784, Catholics in America were subject to the Vicar Apostolic of London. After the Revolutionary War, Erie belonged to the Philadelphia Diocese. On August 15, 1843, the Reverend Michael O Connor, of Philadelphia, was con secrated first bishop of the newly established diocese of Pittsburgh, and Erie became a part of the Pittsburgh Diocese.

St. Mary s and St. Patrick s Churches are known to have held services in Erie in the i83o s. The chapel of St. Patrick s, a two-story structure with living quarters for the priest on the second floor, was on German Street near 4th Street. The Reverend Charles McCabe was the first priest of the parish. The German Catholics founded St. Mary s Church, and held service in a log house on the northeast corner of loth and State Streets. The first resident priest at St. Mary s was the Reverend Ivo Levitz, who probably came to Erie early in 1840.

The Erie Diocese was established in 1853, when Bishop O Connor was transferred from Pittsburgh. He remained seven months, and was returned to the Pittsburgh Diocese. The Most Reverend Tobias Mullen, third Bishop of Erie, was consecrated on August 2, 1868. He made plans for building the present St. Peter s Cathedral, at W. loth and Sassafras Streets, a task requiring nearly 20 years.

The Most Reverend John Mark Gannon, D.D., present (1938) Bishop of Erie, was installed as fifth Bishop of Erie on December 16, 1920. Bishop Gannon is regarded as one of the most learned members of the Catholic hierarchy. He is frequently called upon to perform important duties as a member of the National Catholic Welfare Council.

The diocese embraces Erie, Cameron, Clarion, Clearfield, Crawford, Elk, Forest, Jefferson, McKean, Mercer, Potter, Venango, and Warren counties in northwestern Pennsylvania. The Catholic population of the diocese is 131,828; number of diocesan priests, 164; priests of religious orders, 52; churches with resident pastors, no, to which are attached 47 missions.

The first Protestant service of which there is any record was held on Sunday, July 2, 1797, at the home of Judah Colt, at Colt s Station in Green field Township. In response to a general invitation, about 30 persons came to the service, at which Colt read the sermon, no minister being available. The text was from I Corinthians 14:40: "Let all things be done decently and in order." This subject was chosen because of land controversies at the time.

The Ohio and Redstone Presbyteries sent two missionaries, the Reverend Messrs. McCurdy and Stockton, in 1799, who preached in Erie, Waterford, and North East. Two years later McCurdy again visited the region, accompanied by the Reverend Messrs. Tate, Satterfield, and Boyd. Services were held in a clearing prepared for the occasion on the west branch of French Creek at Middlebrook in Venango Township. The work of McCurdy and Satterfield met with the approval of the people and it was decided to build a meeting house at Middlebrook, aboi a mile and a half north of Lowville, on State 89. In 1801 a log structure was erected, the first Protestant Church in Erie County. It was as the Middlebrook Presbyterian Church.

The first Sacrament of the Lord s Supper, according to Protests forms, was administered at North East on September 27, 1801. There were about 300 in attendance at the meeting. A congregation with the title, "The Churches of Upper and Lower Greenfield," was organized at the time.

The Erie Presbytery was established October 2, 1801, and embraced that portion of Pennsylvania west and northwest of the Allegheny and Ohio Rivers, including a part of the Western Reserve. The first meeting of this presbytery was held at Mount Pleasant, Westmoreland County, on April 13, 1802. The Reverend Messrs. McCurdy, Satterfield, and McPherrin were chosen as missionaries to serve Erie and its environs.

The Reverend Johnson Eaton held occasional services for several years at Colt s Station, Middlebrook, Waterford, and Erie, and organized a congregation at Springfield in 1806. A church was built at the mouth of Walnut Creek, in Fairview Township, in 1810, where Eaton preached several Sundays. He also organized a church at Erie in 1815. In 1820 the minutes of the presbytery showed congregations at Springfield, Fairview, North East, Waterford, Middlebrook, Union, and Erie.

Meetings of the Methodist Episcopal denomination in Erie were held by circuit preachers as early as 1801. A congregation was established soon afterwards, but was unable to support a pastor until 1826, from which time the First M. E. Church of Erie dates its organization.

St. John s Evangelical Lutheran Church asserts that it is the oldest religious organization in the city, dating from August 18, 1808, although the Associated Reform Presbyterian Church also makes the same assertion, having organized a congregation in October, 1811 , with the Reverend Robert Reid as minister. This latter organization held services in a schoolhouse at what is now E. yth and French Streets until 1816.

The Reverend Charles Colsom, a Lutheran minister from Germany, organized congregations at Meadville, French Creek, Conneaut, and Erie in 1815 or 1816. The first Lutheran church in Erie was built in 1836.

The first organization of Episcopalians in Erie County was effected on March 17, 1827, when a number of persons withdrew from the Presbyterian church of Erie and became united as St. Paul s Episcopal congregation, now St. Paul s Cathedral, with the Reverend Charles Smith, of Philadelphia, as rector. Services were held in the courthouse at Erie until a building was erected in November, 1832.

The Erie Diocese of the Episcopal Church was established in 1911, with the Reverend Rogers Israel, as bishop. He was succeeded in 1921 by the Reverend John C. Ward. The diocese includes 13 counties in northwestern Pennsylvania and was formerly a part of the Pittsburgh Diocese.

The first Erie County Baptist congregation was organized in Harborcreek Township in 1822. This was followed by churches in Erie in 1831, and in North East and Waterford Townships in 1832.

The first Hebrew congregation was formed in 1853. The Anshe Hesed Reformed Congregation originated in 1875. The B rith Sholom Synagogue, an orthodox congregation, was organized in 1896.

Other groups to organize in Erie were the First Christian Church in 1888, the First Church of Christ Scientist, 1888, and the Russian Orthodox Church, 1916.

The first Sunday School was founded by the Reverend Mr. Morton and James Moorhead at Moorheadville in 1817. A year later a Sunday School class for girls was established in Erie. Mrs. Judah Colt, who had returned from a visit to England, where these schools were being in troduced, was responsible for initiating the movement. Horace Greeley was one of the students in the winter of 1830.

The 25 different denominations in Erie and Erie County now possess more than 100 church structures and meeting places in the city and suburbs and 107 in the comity. The churches in the city and suburbs have an enrollment of approximately 68,000 members, composed of 26,000 Protestants, and 42,000 Catholics.

ARCHITECTURE

THE history of Erie s development from a pioneer outpost to a modern commercial city can be traced through a knowledge of the city s architecture.

During the i8th and early 19th centuries Erie developed slowly from an outpost military fort to a small but active frontier town. It was logical that her first structures, the forts and dwellings of the militia and the early pioneers, should be built of logs, since wood was the most readily accessible building material. Unfortunately, none of the original pioneer buildings are standing today, but in the History of Erie County, by Laura Sanford, there is a description of the first Fort Presque Isle, built by LeMercier in 1753 for the French Army: "They fell to work and built a square fort of chestnut logs, squared and lapped over each other to the height of 15 feet. It is about 120 feet square, a log-house in each square, a gate to the southward, another to the northward, not one port-hole cut in any part of it. When finished, they called it Fort Presqu ile."

The Fort Wayne Blockhouse, reconstructed in 1880, is a log fort, two- stories high. Above the square ground floor, the octagonal second story cantilevers out beyond the walls below. Log houses were the most practical form of construction until well into the i9th century. A few examples standing today are sheathed over with boarding, such as the Hughes Log House at 135 E. 3rd Street.

The symbol of Erie s emergence from a pioneer settlement to a commercial city, as well as a symbol of a new cultural age in America, is seen in the Old Erie Customs House, 1839. It was designed by William Kelly after its parent bank in Philadelphia. The building is faced with Vermont marble and is the first marble structure erected west of the Allegheny Mountains. It is of Greek Revival design with a finely proportioned portico of six fluted Greek Doric columns, supporting a large entablature and pediment; it is an outstanding example of the architecture of the awakening Republic.

About 1800, after the bonds which had tied America to England were severed, there arose a classic spirit in America. It was an age of interest in the culture of ancient Greece. This spirit left its tangible traces par ticularly in architecture that had for its inspiration the ancient classic temples. This style asserted itself strongly in western New York State; and, with migration southward into Pennsylvania, there appeared numer ous domestic, public, and ecclesiastical buildings whose design was rooted in Greek antiquity. While the old Customs House is the outstanding example of the architecture of this period, the Reed Mansion, 1849, is like wise of interest, chiefly for its broad Ionic portico. The third floor is arranged like a boat deck with the entrance to all rooms from a corridor, with a ship s "railing" on one side. Its adjacent small office, built in 1846, simulates a Greek Doric temple.

St. Luke s Evangelical Lutheran Church, 1844, represents a fusion of late Greek Revival and early Victorian architecture. Its facade of Greek Doric design, surmounted by a box-like belfry, belongs to the former period; while the lancet windows represent the Gothic influence of the later Victorian era.

The west wing of the Erie County Court House, 1855, was originally of late Greek Revival design. In 1929 the structure was entirely rebuilt and enlarged by Walter T. Monahan, Erie architect, to its present "U" plan, the west wing retaining the wall structure of the early building. Faced with gray, cut cast stone, its two similar Corinthian porticos with their tall fluted columns are monumentally impressive.

The Hoskinson House, 127 W. 6th Street, built in 1840, is an attractive early brick residence, notable for its twin Doric doorways, refined examples of the Greek Revival style.

Erected concurrently with the buildings of the Revival Period were the simple brick dwellings which were rooted in the early designs of the Colonial or American Georgian architecture of the eastern seaboard. These include such houses as the Metcalf House on the northwest corner of W. 9th and Sassafras Streets, a two-story and attic dwelling of simple Colonial proportions.

The middle of the last century, and particularly after the close of the Civil War, was a period of commercial expansion. The comely era of the Greek Revival had spent itself. The Victorian architecture which followed expressed the new-found wealth of the community. The turreted mansions of the wealthy, with slate mansard roofs and gingerbread detail, are on West 6th and West 8th Streets. Buildings of all styles were erected, regardless of the suitability or utility of the architecture.

The grey limestone commercial Scott Building, N. W. corner of loth and State Streets, of French Renaissance design, followed the design of New York s old Court House, and Philadelphia s City Hall. Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian columns parade its walls. It was a style popularized by architects returning from their studies at the Ecole des Beaux Arts in Paris.

Present day Erie is still characterized largely by the stamp of the late 19th century. This is borne out by a glance down State Street, Erie's main business thoroughfare, or down W. 6th Street, its avenue of better class homes.

Many of the modern buildings, however, are recognizably of good architecture. Foremost among these is the Presbyterian Church of the Covenant, 1931, of which Corbesier & W. E. Foster were the architects. It is a large, imposing edifice of English perpendicular Gothic design. The delicacy of its rich detail is etched against a background of warm rough stone. The Luther Memorial Church, 1926, designed by Alden and Harlow, is also English Gothic of rugged proportions. The Mercyhurst College, 1926, of modified Gothic architecture, designed by F. Ferdinand Durang of Philadelphia, is likewise noteworthy.

Among the commercial buildings, the six-story, two million dollar Erie Dry Goods Company, 1930, Shutts and Morrison, architects, is an Erie landmark. It is constructed of steel and concrete with cream brick facing trimmed with terra cotta and limestone. The fourteen-story Erie Trust Company building, 1925, designed by Dennison and Hirons, is the city s lone skyscraper.

The Lord Manufacturing Company, 1937, is a modern commercial building, simply constructed of common red brick and opaque glass brick; which, with the lofty concrete grain elevators of the Pennsylvania Railroad on the Lake Shore, represent functionalism in industrial architecture.

Beyond the city, the county extends in gently rolling farm country with many towns containing much of the picturesque architecture of early days. In Waterford, an attractive town of considerable historic interest, is the old Eagle Hotel built in 1826; Thomas King, architect. It is late American Georgian in character, but bears the rugged stamp of the frontier. The Amos Judson house, 1820, of Greek Revival, and the Waterford Academy, 1822, topped by a graceful cupola, are also notable.

The towns of North East and Girard also retain architectural remnants of their earlier days. The First Baptist Church at North East is a small Greek Revival edifice of white clapboard, with a graceful tower and tall spire. Of more recent times is St. Mary s College on the northern edge of the town. It comprises a group of connected buildings of red brick and grey stone with high, blue slate mansard roofs, some of Victorian Gothic and others of later Tudor architecture. At the western end of the group is a French Gothic chapel.

Since it is not the buildings alone but also their setting within the physical pattern of the city which make for their beauty and greatest usefulness, it is interesting to study the city plan of Erie. Downtown Erie was laid out in 1795 by Andrew Ellicott and William Irvine under the influence of William Penn s plan for Philadelphia. They also laid out the towns of Franklin, Waterford, and Warren.

The original plan is divided into four quadrants by its two axial streets State Street, running north and south, and Sixth Street, east and west. These intersect at Perry Square. The city was divided into blocks by a plan of intersecting parallel streets known as the "gridiron" pattern.

Little was done, unfortunately, to take advantage of the long water front of the city. James Parton, in his Life of Horace Greeley, written in 1869, says, "The people of Erie care as much for the Lake as the people of Niagara care for the Cataract, as much as people generally care for anything wonderful or anything beautiful which they can see by turning their heads. Not one house is built along the shore, though the shore is high and level. Not a path has been worn by human feet above or below the bluff. Pigs, sheep, cows, and sweetbriar bushes occupy the unenclosed ground, which seems so made to be built upon that it is surprising that the handsome houses of the town should have been built anywhere else."

The same can be said for Erie today. The waterfront with its several piers and factories presents an uninviting coast line.

The new and finer residential areas, particularly the well designed Frontier Place section, near the western limits of the city, Southlands subdivision to the southwest, and the Glenwood area to the south, represent the present day movement of moderate income and well-to-do groups away from more congested areas. Houses in these sections are usually substantially built in the style of Elizabethan half-timber houses, Spanish patios, French chateaux, and American and English Georgian houses.

A busy industrial city, Erie s tree-lined avenues, finer residential communities and well designed structures, both old and new, reflect her commercial development from an outpost fort to a modern city. The needed improvements of the drabber sections, especially the small wooden houses of the poorer workers, and the uncontrolled hodgepodge construction of the lesser business and industrial neighborhoods, are typical of all American cities. They are a challenge to good government, wise planning, and architectural ingenuity.

EDUCATION

ERIE S educational system is excellent. Graduates from Erie high schools are admitted to leading colleges, in many cases without being required to take entrance examinations. Modern well-equipped buildings and advanced educational methods maintain a high standard.

The public school system of the city of Erie is comprised of three senior high schools, one technical high school, four junior high schools, and twenty-three grade and grammar schools with an enrollment of 19,000 students in 1937. In addition to the public schools, there are five paro chial high schools and eighteen grade schools with an enrollment of 7,100 pupils under the control of the Erie Catholic Diocese. The public school system of Erie embraces school property valued at $12,000,000, including the three large high schools, which were constructed at a total cost of approximately $4,000,000.

Special courses make educational facilities available to the exceptional child. Forty-two specially trained teachers are employed in this work. Adult education and recreation programs sponsored by the Works Progress Administration supplement the activities of the public school system.

Complementing the public schools are institutions located in the county where the students may continue their education. These are the State Teacher s College at Edinboro, Villa Maria, Mercyhurst College, and Cathedral Preparatory School in Erie.

The University of Pittsburgh maintains a junior college center which offers regular college courses of the freshman and sophomore years. Pennsylvania State College also conducts extension evening classes in Erie.

HISTORY OF THE SCHOOLS Educational advantages have increased greatly since the inception of the "Free Public School Law" in 1834. The early schools had but little equipment; many of the classes were held in teachers homes, or in churches. The first schoolhouse in Erie was built at the corner of E. ;th and Holland Streets in 1806. Erie was then a village of 100 inhabitants and the schoolhouse, constructed of hewn logs and costing about $30, stood among the trees on the outskirts of the village. Capt. Daniel Dobbins bought the lot with contributions collected from the villagers for the purpose of founding the school, which was christened the "Presque Isle Academy." The school was known as a "pay school," as were all schools in the State during this early period. The 1812 roll list, preserved as a historic relic by the Erie Board of Education, named 70 boys and girls.

The public school law enacted in 1834 permitted each school district to decide whether a public school system should be adopted. Erie was one of the first to take advantage of this law, which also provided for the maintenance of such schools by levying a general tax. Four frame schoolhouses were constructed on leased ground in 1837 at a cost of $310 each. Classes were held in reading, writing, speaking, geography, grammar, and arithmetic. The four small buildings became inadequate, and in 1848 two brick buildings were erected. These new buildings were the East Ward School, E. 7th and Holland Streets, and the West Ward School, W. 7th and Myrtle Streets.

During 1861 and 1862 the schools were divided into three departments, primary, intermediate, and grammar. By 1866 there were five school buildings; three in the West Ward and two in the East Ward.

Central High School was formed in 1866 by consolidating several higher-class schools. During that year 144 pupils were enrolled and the first graduates of the high school completed their courses in 1869. Requirements for admittance were simple, comprising examples in common fractions, decimals, and U. S. money, the boundaries of two or three states and the names of 20 cities and rivers in the United States, and examples in mental arithmetic. No tests were made in spelling or grammar.

Carter W. Trow, wrote of the Erie High School in 1877:

"The yard was surrounded by a stone wall on top of which was an iron fence. There were two gates, one on Holland and one on Seventh Street. On the third floor there was a large study room in which the whole school assembled and four recitation rooms. In each recitation room were from four to six long benches with backs, but without desks. Usually the boys sat on one side of the room and the girls on the other, with the teacher s desk between them."

Central High School remained at E. yth and Holland Streets until 1891, when it was transferrd to W. loth and Sassafras Streets. In 1930 the classes were transferred to the new Strong Vincent High School, 1330 W. 8th Street, and in February, 1931, old Central High School became the Technical High School. Other high schools were Academy High School, 2825 State Street, in 1920, and East High School, 1151 Atkins Street, in 1921.

Prominent citizens of Erie working in conjunction with the Erie School Board drafted the first law permitting Boards of Education to organize and operate public libraries. This law was passed in 1895, and Erie was the first city in the State to organize such a library. Previous to this, the only library was a privately-supported one at the Y.M.C.A. Branch circulating libraries are maintained in all Erie schools.

CITY TOUR 1

Downtown Erie, z.y miles

PERRY SQUARE, the central starting point for all city tours, occupies two t city blocks extending across State St. between N. and S. Park Rows. In W. Perry Square is a large fountain consisting of a 15 ft. metallic pedestal centered in a concrete basin about 30 ft. in diameter. Surmounting the pedestal is an iron crane with outspread wings which spouts water from its long bill. Four smaller figures of sea serpents are mounted in each quadrant of the basin. In E. Perry Square there is an eight sided fountain. The square is shaded by tall maple trees, and contains iron park benches for the convenience of visitors. On the R. side of State Street is a MONUMENT TO GENERAL "MAD" ANTHONY WAYNE. Its base is 6 ft. wide and 6 ft. high and is topped with two cannon, aimed in opposite directions. A bronze inscription faces the street.

On the L. side of State Street is the SOLDIERS AND SAILORS MONUMENT, a square granite base 7 ft. in height, surmounted by two life-sized bronze figures representing the Army and Navy. The monument was designed by Martin Milmore and erected by public subscription in 1872. Band concerts are held in Perry Square on Saturday nights during the summer months. Music is furnished by Campbell s Band. (Perry Square is shown as point of interest No. 13 on map.)

S. from Perry Square on State Street.

1. The ERIE TRUST BUILDING, 1001-1007 State Street, largest office building in the city, is 14 stories in height. The first and second stories are of Indiana limestone, and the 1 2 upper stories are of light buff brick. Doors and arched entrances are of Romanesque design, and the interior sidewalls are of Italian marble. The structure, designed by Dennison-Hirons, architects of New York City, was built in 1926.

The first floor of the building is occupied by the National Bank and Trust Company of Erie. On the walls of the bank are seven murals, painted by Edward A. Trumball, of New York, depicting historical events of the colonization of Erie. They are: The Visit Of The First White Man To Erie and the French Expedition Into The Ohio; Pontiac's Attack (1763); Washington s Visit To Fort LeBoeuf (Waterford, 1753); Visit Of General Lafayette To Erie (1825); Building Of Perry s Fleet At Erie (1813); Battle Of Lake Erie (1813); and Bringing Powder Overland From Wilmington, Delaware. The Erie Center of the University of Pitts burgh is on the eighth floor.

R. from State Street on W. wth Street.

2. The ERIE TIMES BUILDING, no W. l0th St., is the home of the Erie Daily Times, circulation 40,000, the only newspaper in Erie which has retained the same name and ownership since its founding. The newspaper was founded in 1888 by striking printers from the Evening Herald and the Morning Dispatch who pooled their resources. With $225 in cash, and under the leadership of John Mead, Sr., present president and owner (1938) of the Times Publishing Company, they set up a shop at the S. W. corner of 9th and State Streets. The Times was published there for 36 years, and then was moved to its present location. The paper started as an independent evening publication, its first issue appearing April 12, 1888. In 1894 tne Times absorbed the Erie Sunday Graphic (est. May 20, 1880) and the Erie Observer (founded 1886).

3. The ERIE TECHNICAL HIGH SCHOOL, SE cor. W. l0th and Sassafras Streets, is the seat of vocational training of the Erie public school system. Arts and crafts, sheet metal work, and other units requiring special equipment are contained in the building, a 4-story structure of red brick with a tall, square tower. Shop wings have been added in recent years.

4. ST. PETER S ROMAN CATHOLIC CATHEDRAL, NW cor. W. l0th and Sassafras Streets, is a Gothic structure of red Medina lime stone, with three spires over the main entrance on Sassafras Street. Built during the Most Rev. Tobias Mullen s episcopacy, the Cathedral was dedicated in 1893. The architect was C. C. Keely, of New York City. On each side of the square central tower are four huge clocks, each facing a cardinal direction. Each of the spires is surmounted by a cross; the one on the central spire is n feet in height. The huge bells in the central tower peal, at quarter-hour intervals, the Chimes of Erie, composed by Bishop John Mark Gannon.

The Cathedral interior, seating 2,000, is of lofty proportions and is adorned with busts of Erie bishops. The organ was built for the Chicago World s Fair of 1893.

5. The LUTHER MEMORIAL CHURCH, 225 W. loth St., is a granite building of English Gothic inspiration. The cross surmounting the building is a reproduction of the cross at King s Chapel, Oxford, England. The altar is of Botticino marble; the pulpit, baptistry, lectern, and altar rail are of oak. The panels of the main north window represent the three stages of the ministry of Christ. The building, dedicated in 1926, seats 1,000. The architects were Alden and Harlow, of Pittsburgh, and H. K. Jones, supervising architect.

Retrace W. wth St.; L. from W. loth St. on Sassafras St., R. from Sassa fras St. on W. th St.

6. ST. LUKE S EVANGELICAL CHURCH, 1 20 W. 9 th St., erected in 1844 by the Universalist Society of Erie, is a frame structure of late Greek Revival and Gothic architecture, with a square, tapered belfry overlooking the street. The classic Doric piers and columns of its white facade are in contrast to the Gothic lancet windows. The oldest church building in the city, it was purchased by the St. Luke s Evangelical Lutheran congregation in 1897.

7. The COMMUNITY PLAYHOUSE, 128 W. 7 th St. (open from Sept. to June), is operated by public contribution for the production of stage plays by local actors, amateur and professional. It is the home of a group organized in 1916 as the Little Playhouse. Its name was changed to Community Playhouse in 1929. A new building was erected in 1928 and opened in 1929. The buiulding, a 2-story, red brick structure, is of Georgian Colonial design and seats 300. Among recent presentations were: The Rivals, Front Page, As Husbands Go, and Murray Hill. Retrace W. jth St.; L. from W. jth St. on Peach St.

8. CITY HALL, SE cor. Peach St. and S. Park Row, is a 3-story building of red pressed brick, trimmed in sandstone, with a square tower rising from its northwest corner. The basement, which is partially above ground, houses police headquarters and the dungeon-like city jail. The other floors are occupied by the various departments of city government. The cornerstone was laid on July 31, 1884, with Masonic ceremonies. The bell of the Queen Charlotte, the British flagship captured by Perry in the Battle of Lake Erie, is suspended from the ceiling of the first floor corridor, at the foot of the wide oaken stairway. The interior of City Hall is somber, the woodwork is dark and heavy, and the lighting is poor. Adjacent to City Hall on the east is CITY HALL ANNEX, containing the offices of the City Solicitor, and the City Planning Commission. This building, a 2 -story, tan colored brick structure, was the home of MULLIGAN HALL, a relief depot supported by Erie merchants and citizens during the early days of the 1930 depression. Transients and other needy persons were given food here before the State and Federal relief agencies were sufficiently organized to care for Erie s needy persons.

9. The STRONG MANSION (private), SW cor. W. 6th and Peach Sts., is the most pretentious dwelling in Erie. It is a two-and-a-half -story structure of tan brick, with limestone trim. A balcony follows the second story level across the W. 6th St. side, railed with delicate iron work. The entrance is of modified Roman pillars, six in number, supporting the ceiling of a recessed foyer. The doorways are topped by pointed, limestone arches. The building is of English town house design, with con siderable French chateau influence. Long French windows look out upon the streets. Though in a rectangular form the structure is so broken with ells and buttresses as to give an effect of symetry, and of a gracefulness seldom found in huge mansions. This effect is accentuated by the height of the building and the steep pitch of the roof. It contains 40 rooms. It was built by William L. Scott, early Erie philanthropist, railroad magnate, newspaper publisher, and politician, and presented in 1896 to his daughter, Mrs. Anna Wainwright Scott Strong.

10. The ERIE CLUB BUILDING (open to members and guests), NW cor. W. 6th and Peach Sts., was erected in 1849 as the residence of Gen. Charles M. Reed, grandson of Col. Seth Reed, the first settler of Erie. The Erie Club, incorporated January 10, 1882, purchased the build ing and took possession in 1905. It is two stories in height, and is of red brick painted brown, with sandstone trim. Four fluted Ionic columns ; support a pediment facing Peach St. Doric pilasters accentuate the corners of the house.

11. ERIE PUBLIC LIBRARY BUILDING (open weekdays, 9 a. m. 9:30 p. m.; Sun. and holidays 2-5), SW cor. S. Park Row and French St., is of Italian Renaissance architecture, two stories in height. The entrance on S. Park Row consists of a group of classical columns supporting an extended pediment. The structure is of brick and granite with lime stone quoins. It was built in 1897-99 by the Board of Education and is controlled by that body through a board of trustees. Alden and Harlow, of Pittsburgh, were the architects.

The first floor and mezzanine are occupied by a free public library con taining 135,000 volumes. There are reading rooms, reference rooms, a periodical room, and the librarian s office. In the basement are complete files of all Erie newspapers, and a museum containing historical and scientific exhibits.

The library maintains seven branches in the public schools, placing books for free distribution in all grade and high schools. The works of various writers and authors who were native to Erie city and county, or who made their home here at times, are included in the library. Ida Minerva Tarbell (1857- ), probably Erie County s most outstanding writer, is the author of a History of the Standard Oil Company, an authoritative history of the industry and a biography of an organizing genius, a Life of Lincoln, and Tariff in Our Times. She was born near Wattsburg, in Amity Township, and gave up a teaching career to be come an associate editor of the Chautauquan, a small New York magazine, later becoming managing editor of the publication, and afterward quitting the post to visit Europe to study the writing of biography.

Emory A. Walling, 1854-1931, who served a term on the Pennsylvania Supreme Court, wrote a biographical history titled Memoirs of the Erie County Bench and Bar. This book is the only accurate history of the Erie County bench in existence.

Effie B. Kaemmerling (Aldis Dunbar), born in Philadelphia, Pa., 1870, now (1938) living in Erie, was one of the most prolific writers of the county. Among her writings are Lightbearers, Once There was a Prince, Sons O Cormac and Tales of Other Men s Sons.

Baroness Von Hutten (nee Betsy Riddle), born in Erie in 1874 and now (1938) living in England, wrote fiction of the early i9oo s, such as Bag of Saffron, Halo, Kingsmeade, Lives of a Woman, Miss Carmichael j s Conscience, Our Lady of the Beaches, and Pen Decides.

Sarah A. Reed, born in Ashtabula, O., 1838, died in Erie in 1934, published a number of volumes. Her best were My Grandmother s Story and Other Stories, After Fifty Years, E elated Passenger, Dora Bently, Romance of Arlington House, and Study Class Programs.

Francis Newton Thorpe, born in Swampscott, Mass., in 1857 and descended from Miles and Rose Standish, moved with his parents to North East in 1865. In 1889 he wrote The Government of the People of The United States, designed as a text book on American institutions, which passed through eight editions in the next four years.

The ART GALLERY, also on the second floor (open Sat. 2 to j; Sun. and Mon. eves. 7:30 to 9), was established in 1898 and has a permanent collection of 40 paintings covering a general field. The most valuable painting is Late Afternoon, Isle of Shoals, by Childe Hassam, painter of the impressionistic school. Other noted paintings are White Cliffs of Albion, by Edward Moran; Sans Souci, by Gustave Mosler, the elder; The Echo, by Mosler, the younger; and Silent Woods, by R. W. ShurtlafF. Two interesting paintings by Harry Klopp, done under the WPA Federal Art Project, are Robin Hood and The Pied Piper of Hamlin.

The MUSEUM in the basement (open 9-5:30 daily except Sim.), contains numerous relics, antiques, costumes, and specimens of scientific and historical collections, such as a facsimile of Oliver Hazard Perry s flag; the kettle in which the flesh was boiled from the bones of Gen. Anthony Wayne to make a package for shipment to his old home at Radnor, Pa., where his bones were reinterred; a chair used in the blockhouse where Wayne died; the side lanterns of Perry s first flagship, the Lawrence; the surgical kit of Dr. Usher Parsons, surgeon of Perry s fleet; and a letter from George Washington to one of his generals in 1777. Other exhibits include Indian implements, documents written by Washington, Commodore Perry, and John Brown, and a deed containing the names of William, John, and Richard Perm. From time to time various foreign collections are exhibited. The museum is also headquarters for lectures, and garden and hobby club gatherings.

12. The FEDERAL BUILDING, SE cor. S. Park Row and State St., is a 3-story, ell-shaped building of Indiana limestone, trimmed with slate, soapstone, and granite. The architect was R. Stanley Brown, consulting architect of the U. S. Treasury Dept. The building houses the federal offices of the district, including the Federal Court. The Perry Square station of the Erie post office occupies the first floor. R. from S. Park Row on State St.

14. WOODRUFF RESIDENCE, 417 State St., is a large, simple, buff- plastered home with Doric entrance, built in 1839. Samuel E. Woodruff, a distinguished Erie citizen, lived here from 1872 to 1881. It is now used for commercial purposes.

15. The HORACE GREELEY BOARDING HOUSE, 416 State St., a simple 2-story brick house is now occupied by a laundry. The famous editor, founder of the New York Tribune and Liberal-Democratic nominee for President in 1872, worked in Erie during 1830-31, as a printer on the Erie Gazette, and boarded in this house.

1 . The OLD CUSTOMS HOUSE, 407 State St., was designed by William Kelly and erected in 1839. It is of Greek Revival design, with a finely proportioned marble portico of six fluted pillars, supporting a large entablature and pediment. It was planned originally for the Erie branch of the United States Bank of Philadelphia, but before the structure was completed the bank had failed. The building was sold in 1849 to the United States Government for $29,000, and was used for many years as a Customs House, Internal Revenue Office, and Post Office. It was purchased by Erie County Commissioners in 1937, and leased to the Erie County Historical Society, present (1938) occupant of the building.

Midway in the block between State and French Sts. is the SITE WHERE LAFAYETTE WAS FETED on his visit to Erie on June 3 and 4, 1825. At an open-air banquet on a hill which at that time over looked Erie harbor, he proposed the following toast to the future city:

"Erie a name that has a great share in American glory. May this town ever enjoy a proportionate share in American prosperity and happiness."

17. PERRY MEMORIAL BUILDING (open), SE cor. 2 d and French Sts., is a 3 -story and basement frame building of gray clapboard sides and gabled roof. Entrances are on both streets, that on E. 2d St. leading into the basement at street level. The building was erected prior to 1812, and was reconstructed by the city in 1923 as a memorial to Commodore Perry, who lived here during the building of the American fleet in 1812 and following the victory in 1813.

18. HAMOT HOSPITAL, NE cor. zd and State Sts., overlooks Presque Isle Bay and Lake Erie. Established mainly through the efforts of the Reverend James Taylor Franklin, it was chartered on February 7, 1 88 1, and opened in July of the same year. The older part of the structure was formerly the home of P. S. V. Hamot; the property was deeded free to the hospital association by its owners, Mrs. Mary A. Starr, Charles H. Strong, and Kate Strong, for a general hospital. Several additions have been made to the original structure, the last one being in 1932. It contains 255 beds and is a State-accredited hospital. It is supported by full and part pay patients, yearly contributions from the local Community Chest, annual appropriations from the State, and occasional appropriations from the Commissioners of Erie County. The hospital conducts a training school for nurses, and maintains three homes for nurses. It is governed by a board of managers, usually elected for three- year terms, and chosen from a board of corporators numbering 100.

19. The PUBLIC STEAMBOAT LANDING, foot of State St., is a double-decked steel pier, extending 538 feet into Presque Isle Bay. Used for passenger service, it was constructd in 1908 by the State and is maintained by the city. This is a favorite trysting place for Erie citizens, hundreds of whom drive down the long hill at the foot of State St. during the evening hours, to park their cars on the edge of the pier and watch the sunset over the Peninsula across the bay.

Restaurants located at the approach of the pier serve special fish lunches and dinners. Fish sandwiches are favorite fare for visitors. The windows of the restaurants are decorated with aquariums containing specimens of brilliantly colored fish of the carp species.

Boats and fishing tackle may be rented from small establishments along the bay front. During the fishing season hundreds of sportsmen are to be seen fishing from the docks and angling from boats anchored in the bay. Calico bass, pike, and perch are the most common fish to be caught from the bay.

The shriek of the incoming fishing tug s whistles is the signal for hundreds of gulls to rise from the slips and to gather from the more distant inlets, to fly in whirling flocks near the unloading platforms. As the fish are cleaned in the fish houses, the heads and other waste portions are thrown into the water where the gulls swoop down to feed.

A Coast Guard vessel docks at the Municipal Pier, as does a training ship of the U. S. Naval Reserves.

Erie Harbor, situated within Presque Isle Bay, provides adequate depth and anchorage facilities for the largest of Great Lakes carriers. Harbor activities center largely east of the steamboat landing, though there is also bay traffic in the western section of the harbor.

The PENNSYLVANIA R. R. GRAIN ELEVATOR, east of the Pier, is a mammoth structure built in 1917 and added to in 1930. Of concrete and stec it has a capacity of 2,600,000 bushels, and is equipped with modern machinery enabling the unloading of grain from vessels at the rate of 25,000 bushels an hour.

The LAKE FREIGHT WAREHOUSE, east of the grain elevator, is a package warehouse. This one-story concrete and steel structure, built in 1935, 792 ft. long by 100 ft. wide. The warehouse and dock can handle simultaneously two 600 ft. vessels and 48 railroad cars, with direct gangway connections.

Farther east, the PULP WOOD DOCK, serving the Hammermill Paper Co. receives 150,000 cords of pulp wood annually. Facilities for handling pulp wood for other firms are also available. The coal and ore docks equipped with modern loading and unloading machinery. The coal dock handles 2,500,000 tons of bituminous and anthracite annually for Great Lake ports, both American and Canadian. The coal dumper has a capacity of 1,300 tons per hour.

The west end of the harbor possesses docking facilities for loading and unloading directly from car to boat. Here are one of the Erie Lighting Company s plants, several fish companies headquarters, the Erie Sand & Gravel Co. s dock, the chemical and saturating works of the H. F. Watson Mills, a pumping station of the Erie Water Works Dept., the State Fish Hatchery, and farther west, the Erie Yacht Club.

Tugs of the various fishing companies, located on both sides of State St. approaching the Steel Pier, bustle about the bay to and from the fish ing grounds far out in the lake. The fish company docks are a jungle of drying nets and equipment.

20. The ERIE COUNTY COURTHOUSE, 130 W. 6th St., is a U-shaped classical structure of gray stone, rising two stories above a high base. The facades of the wings are identical. Each has a portico of six lofty, fluted Corinthian columns, supporting an entablature and low pediment. Across the open end of the U, a balustraded promenade connects the two porticoes at base height. The portico platforms are up six steps from the grade. The west wing was constructed in 1855, and the east wing in 1929 at which time the entire west wing was rebuilt to conform to the new east wing, which follows closely the classical proportions set down by the Italian architect-archaeologist, Vignola. The entire base is of sandstone, and the superstructure of cut cast stone, made in Syracuse, N. Y. Walter Monahan, of Erie, was the architect.

21. The ERIE COUNTY PRISON is to the rear of and connected with the courthouse. The grounds of the courthouse and prison are spacious and landscaped; lawns surround the buildings; and shrubbery plots occupy the corners of the grounds. Near the W. 6th St. sidewalk was erected the gallows on which Henry Francesco, the first person condemned by judicial decree in Erie County, was hanged for the murder of his wife, in 1838. The tragedy was the result of a suicide pact in which the couple took poison. The wife died, but Francesco recovered and was found guilty of murder in the first degree.

L. from W. 6th St. on Sassafras St.

22. The FIRST CHURCH OF CHRIST SCIENTIST, 618 Sassafras St., was completed in May, 1922. The church is a dignified structure of cream-colored brick. The building, representing a modern adaptation of Greek architecture, has a high porch surmounting four fluted Ionic columns. The central passageway is through three doorways, opening on a large foyer with inlaid tile floor, and decorated with two hand- wrought bronze lighting fixtures. Adjoining the foyer are the Sunday School rooms and administration offices. At the end of the foyer, wide stairways, trimmed in walnut, lead to the main auditorium. The reader's desk, pews, and trimmings are of walnut. The auditorium seats 600.

Retrace Sassafras St.; L. from Sassafras St. on W. 6th St.

23. The CHURCH OF THE COVENANT, W. 6th St. near Myrtle St., is a large imposing edifice of English perpendicular Gothic design. It is unusual in the contrast of its delicately detailed limestone trim against a background of granite ashlar. The front with its delicate porch is dominated by a huge recessed window with delicate tracery and flanked by tall and ornate buttresses. To the right of the facade is an unusually beautiful tall square tower connected to the main structure by an aisle extension of the narthex. The cruciform interior is impressive for its lofty scale and simplicity, for the exquisite window above the altar and for the fine wood beamed ceiling. Architecturally, this Presbyterian church is regarded as one of the outstanding edifices in the city.

The interior stone is a warm buff with a slight purple cast. The auditorium seats 1,100 and the chapel 150. The 4-story educational ell facing W. 7th St. accommodates 1,000 Sunday School students. Two organs and a number of pianos are in the building. The stained glass windows are by Connick and D Ascenzo of Philadelphia. The building was designed by Corbusier and Foster, of Cleveland. R. from W. 6th St. on Chestnut St.

24. The STATE FISH HATCHERY AND AQUARIUM, on the bay front under the bluff that follows the shores of Presque Isle Bay, is utilized to propagate fish for stocking Presque Isle Bay and Lake Erie with white fish, ciscoes, pike, perch, and bass. The output for the last three years has ranged from 130,000,000 to 300,000,000 fish a year. With in the 2 -story red brick structure are exhibits of plants, animals, and fish life common to Lake Erie, from salt water, and a few specimens from the swamps of southern United States.

Retrace Chestnut St.; R. from Chestnut St. on W. 6th St.

25. GRIDLEY PARK, at the corner of Liberty Blvd., was named for Capt. Charles Vernon Gridley, who commanded the Olympia, Adm. George Dewey s flagship in the battle of Manila Bay on May i, 1898. "You may fire when ready, Gridley!" was the terse command given by Dewey to this Erie naval officer, who died of natural causes shortly thereafter. His body was returned to Erie for burial. The park consists of two city squares bisected by Liberty Blvd. and extending between Park Ave. N., and Park Ave. S. The two parks are landscaped, with grass, shrubbery and trees, and in the center of each is a concrete fountain.

The MONUMENT TO GRIDLEY, erected by the citizens of Erie in 1913, is a round granite shaft, 25 feet high, 30 inches in diameter at the base, and 26 inches at the top, set on a five-stepped pyramidal base of granite. A bronze plaque, designed by Max Bachman, is affixed to the east side of the base. Gridley Junior High School overlooks the park from Park Ave. N.

L. from Gridley Park on Liberty Blvd.

26. VILLA MARIE COLLEGE AND ACADEMY, 819-26 W. 8th St., adjoins old Villa Maria Academy, a part of the institution. The college, founded in 1925, is under the jurisdiction of the Most Reverend John Mark Gannon, Bishop of Erie, and was the first Catholic college for girls in the Erie diocese. It offers 4-year courses leading to degrees in arts and sciences, including home economics, music, secretarial training, chemistry, physics, nursing, and journalism. It is equipped with laboratories, gymnasium, and natatorium. The dormitories and classrooms are in Gannon Hall, which also houses Our Lady s Chapel. This building is on the campus of the original Villa Maria Academy, founded in 1891, the property being the gift of Rev. Thomas A. Casey, who also endowed the school. The buildings and grounds are owned by the Sisters of the Order of St. Joseph, who comprise the faculty. The college is supported by tuition fees of students and contributions of friends. The academy, operated in conjunction with the college, is for classes in the elementary grades and 4-year high school courses.

Retrace Liberty Blvd.; L. from Liberty Blvd. on Park Ave. N., R. from Park Ave. N., on Cascade St.

27. The SITE OF SHIPYARD WHERE THE NIAGARA WAS BUILT, is on Presque Isle Bay near zd and Cascade Sts. Three of Commodore Perry s ships, the Lawrence, Niagara, and Ariel, were built in the hastily constructed yards. These ships participated in the Battle of Lake Erie (see COUNTY TOUR 1).

Retrace Cascade St.; R. from Cascade St. on W. 8th St.

28. STRONG VINCENT HIGH SCHOOL, 1330 W. 8th St., occupies an 1 1 -acre tract extending to W. 6th St. and lying between Weschler Ave. and Bridge St. Completed in 1930, it is Erie s finest school building. Lawns on all sides are terraced, and those at the rear slope to an athletic field. The slope is landscaped with shrubs and evergreens. The building, of Roman Doric design, has an auditorium seating 1,480. Meyers and Johnson, of Erie, were the architects.

L. from W. 8th St. on Lincoln Ave.

29. The ZEM ZEM HOSPITAL, 1501 W. 9th St., is an institution for treatment of crippled children. It was established in 1927, by Zem Zem Temple, Ancient Arabic Order, Nobles of the Mystic Shrine, con tains 48 beds, and is open to all children between two and 1 2 years of age from the nine counties of northwestern Pennsylvania irrespective of race or creed. It is supported by bequests; since 1931 it has received aid from Erie County and the State.

Retrace Lincoln Ave.; L. from Lincoln Ave. on Lake Shore Dr.

30. The ERIE YACHT CLUB, at the foot of Kahkwa Blvd., on the bay front, was organized in 1894. I* 1 addition to the clubhouse there is a pier with mooring facilities for motor yachts and sailboats. Yacht races are held annually, usually in July.

L. from Lake Shore Dr. on Kahkwa Blvd., R. from Kahkwa Blvd. on W. 6th St.

31. ST. JOSEPH S HOME FOR CHILDREN, 1926 W. 6th St., is a 4-story brick structure with accommodations for 500 children. It was established in 1864, when Sisters of the Order of St. Joseph occupied a small frame building on E. 4th St., near St. Patrick s School. Later they moved to a house on E. id St., and in 1872 to a newer building on E. 3d St. On July 2, 1924, they moved to the present building which was built in 1922-23. The home is supported by the Erie Diocese of the Catholic Church, by appropriations from the Board of Commissioners of the 13 counties in the diocese, and by the Erie Community Chest. It is open to orphans of all creeds and races.

L. from W. 6th St. on Pittsburgh Ave. (City limits); L. from Pittsburgh Ave. on W. 12th St.

32. The HOUSING COMMUNITY, on W. izth St., at Lincoln Ave., was erected in 1917-18 by the United States Government for World War industrial workers, in its first attempt to house people in the lower income brackets. It is a collection of 2 -story, stuccoed houses. Often referred to as "Hollywood," it is a community covering two city blocks extending southward through i3th and i4th Sts. and one side of 15th St. The group, slightly romantic in design, is influenced by the early garden city developments in England.

33. The LORD MANUFACTURING COMPANY PLANT, (R), near the Greengarden Rd. intersection, is Erie s most modern industrial building. Constructed in 1937, it is a 2-story rectangular structure of common red brick and glass brick. Designed in broad horizontal lines it is entirely devoid of ornament. This plant manufactures rubber specialties. R. from W. i2th St. on Greengarden Rd.

34. The ERIE FORGE & STEEL COMPANY PLANT, a group of corrugated iron factory buildings, (L), lies between the Bessemer & Lake Erie R. R. and the New York Central R. R. and occupies an area of 1 1 acres. The company was founded in 1914. During the same year it absorbed the Erie Forge Co., which had been established in 1872. Products are steel ingots, forgings, and castings. During the World War it produced armament for the Navy.

Retrace Greengarden Rd.; R. from Greengarden Rd. on W. i2th St.

35. The JARECKI MFG. CO. PLANT, (R), a group of 2-story brick factory buildings with glass roofs, opposite Weschler Ave. and extending 2 blocks on W. izth St., one of Erie s most widely known manufacturing concerns, was established in 1852. Many of the buildings were used in wartime by the Brakeshoe Works, makers of Government munitions. The plant now produces pipe fittings, compressors, and oil, gas, and water well supplies.

36. The BUCYRUS-ERIE PLANT, NE cor. W. i2th and Cran berry Sts., is a 3 -story brick office building covered with ivy and adjoining 2 and 3 -story industrial buildings. Formerly it was the Erie Steam Shovel Co., but was merged with the Bucyrus Co., of Lorain, O., in 1928. Makers of power shovels, cranes, etc., it is called the world s greatest builder of excavating machinery.

37. The GRISWOLD MFG. CO. PLANT, (R), SE cor. W. i2th and Raspberry Sts., a compact group of industrial buildings, produces cooking utensils and household supplies. This plant was the scene, during the summer of 1937, of a prolonged labor strike resulting from the refusal of company officials to recognize the C.I.O. After weeks of negotiations in which city officials and police took an active part, employees went back to work. This was the first time in Erie s industrial history that labor made itself seriously felt in its demand for better working conditions and higher wages.

38. The BESSEMER & LAKE ERIE R. R. parallels W. 12th St. on the right. Originally known as the Pittsburgh, Shenango & Lake Erie R. R., the company was halted on its advance into the city at the telegraph office of Cascade, a point on the Nickel Plate Railroad at the western boundary of Erie. City officials, prompted by the Scott-Strong railroad interests occupying right of way along the lake front, refused to permit section crews of the Bessemer Company to enter the city on 12th St. The company called hundreds of section hands into service at midnight on a Saturday, and began laying tracks into Erie over Sunday, the law being that city officials were unable to make arrests on Sunday. Late Sunday night the Bessemer Company ran its first train to W. 12th and Sassafras Sts., where its passenger station now stands, thus laying claim to a franchise.

L. from W. 12th St. on Liberty Blvd.

39. The JEWISH TEMPLE, REFORMED CONGREGATION ANSHE CHESED, NW cor. W. l0th St. and Liberty Blvd., is a tan- colored brick building, one story high, of North Italian design. The main entrance on the Liberty Blvd. side consists of three massive panelled oak doors, with small arches over each and the whole contained in a large arch. Surmounting the middle door are the Tablets of the Law and above those is a semi-circular window lighting the balcony. The roof is of tile in soft shades of red and brown. The vestibule has a vaulted ceiling.

Three panelled doors lead into the temple, which is an octagonal room 54 ft. across and 43 ft. high, seating 500. In the upper part of the walls are six pairs of stained glass memorial windows, each of which carries symbols of the Twelve Tribes of Israel. The activities house, reached through a lobby to W. loth St., contains the memorial library, rabbi's office, educational rooms, and auditoriums.

CITY TOUR 3

Northeast Erie 8.5 m.

E. from Perry Square on E. 6th St.

40. The PENNSYLVANIA NATIONAL GUARD ARMORY AND ARSENAL, NW cor. E. 6th and Parade Sts., is a 2-story, red brick building. The western half was built in 1920, and the eastern half in 1930, at a total cost of $150,000. It is the headquarters of the Wayne Rangers, a company of the Pennsylvania National Guard, composed of 20 officers and 325 enlisted men.

L. from E. 6th St. on Ash St.

41. The PENNSYLVANIA SOLDIERS AND SAILORS HOME, 560 E. 3d St. at the foot of Ash St., occupies a tract of 133 acres formerly known as Garrison Hill, overlooking Presque Isle Bay. The building is three stories high, of red brick. The central part of the main building was erected by the State prior to 1885 as a hospital for sick and disabled seamen in the Great Lakes service, but it was never so used and was un occupied for many years. In 1885, the State made an appropriation for alterations and improvements. The hospital contains four wards with accommodations for 80 patients. It has a large reception room and a library containing 7,000 volumes. An average of 350 veterans reside in the home, the majority having served in the World War. Others are Spanish-American veterans, and a few served on the Mexican border in 1916-17. The home is governed by a board of trustees, appointed by the governor of Pennsylvania, and staffed by 50 persons.

The SITE OF FORT PRESQUE ISLE, erected by the French in 1753 at the mouth of Mill Creek, is on the grounds of the Soldiers and Sailors Home. The site was easily traceable by mounds and depressions until 1863.

42. The GEN. ANTHONY WAYNE MEMORIAL, a blockhouse on the site of Fort Presque Isle, is a reproduction of the one in which Wayne died. It is square at the base, with an overhanging octagonal second story, built of roughly finished logs. Portholes or windows are in each of the four lower and eight upper walls. It was built by the State in 1880 as a memorial to Wayne, who died here on Dec. 15, 1796 and was buried at the foot of the flagstaff of the former blockhouse on this site.

In 1809 hi s body was disinterred; the flesh was boiled from his bones and reinterred in the same grave. The bones were taken to Radnor, near Philadelphia, by his son, Col. Isaac Wayne, for interment. The kettle used for this task, and a chair from the blockhouse, are in the public museum at the Erie Public Library.

For a time the blockhouse was used as a barn. Sometime after 1812 the old structure burned to the ground. Dr. E. W. Germer, Erie health officer from 1872 to 1887, became interested in restoring the blockhouse, and was instrumental in locating Wayne s grave. When it was found the present blockhouse was built over the site in 1880.

Dr. Germer did much to make Erie a healthful place. He was Erie s first health officer, and in that capacity roamed the streets with an ax in his hand and fire in his eyes. Pigs and geese in old Erie were allowed to wander the streets at will until Germer halted the practice; and if his warnings to eliminate unsanitary outhouses and crude sewage gutters went unheeded, he put his ax to them. Dr. Germer was also the first president of the Pennsylvania State Board of Health, and he acquired a national reputation during a health convention in Washington, D. C. when he vigorously protested against the importing of rags from southern Mediterranean countries where Asiatic cholera was raging. Retrace Ash St.; L. from Ash St. on E. 6th St.; L. from E. 6th St. on East Ave.

43. The LAKE VIEW HOSPITAL, 136 East Ave, a 2-story white frame building, is municipally owned and operated for the treatment of contagious diseases. It succeeded an old hospital established in 1904. In 1927 a new building was erected on the original grounds in front of the old building. It has 85 beds.

Retrace East Ave.; L. fro?n East Ave. on E. 6th St.; L. from E. 6th St. on Dunn Blvd.

44. The OLD LAND LIGHTHOUSE, foot of Dunn Blvd. in Land Lighthouse Park and overlooking the entrance to Erie Harbor, was the first land lighthouse erected on the Great Lakes by the United States Government. It is a circular structure, about 18 feet in diameter at its base, and with a slightly smaller dimension at the top. Built of gray stone, it rises 70 feet from its water-table to the focal plane of the lens, and about 127 feet above the lake level. It was first erected in 1818, rebuilt in 1858, and again 1866, but was not used as a lighthouse after 1885. Retrace Dunn Blvd.; L. -from Dunn Blvd. on E. 6th St.

45. The HAMMERMILL PAPER PLANT (open during office hours), lake front between Hess Ave. and Lakeside Cemetery, is internationally known as the maker of Hammermill bond paper. The company was founded in 1898 by Moritz Behrend and his sons, Ernst R. and Otto F. Behrend.

Hammermill pioneered in the manufacture of sulphite writing papers. Principal products at present are writing and printing papers. The plant has a floor space of 16 acres on a tract of 211 acres, and employs 1,400 persons. Most of its pulp wood comes from Canada, and its products are exported to all countries.

Erie was chosen as the site for two reasons. First, the lake furnished an unlimited supply of clear water, so necessary to the making of clean paper. Second, the Great Lakes offered economical transportation, thus making accessible enormous quantities of spruce wood from American and Canadian forests. Hammermill received its name in the following manner: three generations ago a site on one of the branches of the Whipper River in Pomerania, Germany, became known as "The Ham mer," from a small blacksmith shop and trip-hammer forge. Years later a paper mill, built on the forge site by Moritz Behrend, took its name from the earlier industry, and was called "Hammermuhle." The mill founded at Erie was named for the parent mill, but was given the English spelling.

Only northern spruce is used in the manufacture of Hammermill papers. During the winter, crews of lumberjacks fell selected trees, cut them into four-foot lengths, and pile the logs on the ice of the rivers. During the spring thaw, the logs are floated down the rivers to the boats that carry them to Erie.

Most of the spruce comes from Canada, where Hammermill owns a timber tract of 128,000 acres on the St. Lawrence River. By cutting only selected trees this tract would supply the mill for twenty years; however, by using modern reforestration methods the supply can be continued almost indefinitely.

At the docks in Erie harbor the logs are transferred to railway cars. Each log is carefully inspected, and the culls are thrown aside. The piles, about 14 feet high, are so arranged that a maximum of air circulation reaches each log, thus preventing decay. Logs are seasoned for a year in the yards before being used. The yards hold about 100,000 cords. The logs are then conveyed to the barker, the first operation in paper making.

The barker consists of a long trough with a steel bottom. Steel cams, revolving through slots in the bottom alternately raise and lower the logs in the trough. The rising and falling motion causes the logs to revolve against one another, thus rubbing off the water softened bark. The bark, washed away, is removed through the bottom of the barker. The barked logs are inspected, and those imperfectly barked are reprocessed. The barked logs are washed and all knots and other imperfections are care fully removed in the wood room.

The prepared logs are fed against a steel disc four feet in diameter to which are affixed four steel knives. The disc, rotating at 300 revolutions a minute, reduces the largest logs to chips within a few seconds. The chips are conveyed to a series of screens and sorted according to size. Those too large are crushed to proper size, and sawdust and small chips are burned as refuse. The correct size in inches is about one-eighth thick, five-eighths long, and three-fourths wide. It is important they be uniform so that they will all cook into pulp at the same time; that is, that some will not be over cooked and some under cooked.

The acid-making plant is a factory in itself. Sulphur is burned and the resulting gas, sulphur dioxide, after being cooled, is blown into the bottom of a concrete tower, 68 feet high, filled with limestone which absorbs the rising gas and forms sulphurous acid, which dissolves the limestone, forming calcium bi-sulphite, or "cooking liquor." More than 250,000 gallons of acid are made daily at Hammermill, requiring about 20 tons of sulphur and from 27 to 28 tons of limestone.

Acid-resisting brick-lined steel tanks, 50 feet high, called "digesters," are filled with the chips. These great kettles hold more than 30 cords of wood, in chips. The cooking liquor is injected, and live steam allowed to circulate in the digester. Chips are "cooked" under varying temperatures and pressures for 14 hours.

At the expiration of the cooking, the ligneous and resinous parts of the wood have been dissolved, leaving pure cellulose fibres. The contents of the digester are then forced by steam into "blow tanks," which have slanting tile floors with holes drilled at such an angle that fibres cannot pass through them. For several hours the pulp is washed with pure water until free from excess acid and dissolved impurities.

From the time pulp leaves the digesters until it reaches the bleachers, it passes through a number of cleaning processes. The first is a series of rotary screens or "knot strainers" into which the pulp is pumped. The screen meshes allow the fibres of pulp to pass through readily, but are too small for particles of uncooked wood and knots which are removed at the opposite end.

The pulp is then allowed to flow over the rifHers. The flow of pulp and water causes a circular current under the baffles. The dirt and other impurities fall to the bottom, and are washed under the baffles where they settle.

The screens, 75 feet long, are made of heavy bronze plates perforated with slots two or three inches long and seven one-thousandths of an inch wide. A rubber diaphragm, moving up and down, causes a partial vacuum or suction under a screen, and draws the cellulose fibres through the fine slots. Heavy dirt and other impurities cannot pass, but work their way to the opposite end of the screens and are removed.

So much water is added during these purification steps that the pulp is next run through a series of pulp thickeners to be partially dried. These thickeners are finely meshed rotary screens, slightly conical in shape.

The pulp is mixed with bleaching liquor (a solution of hypochlorite) in large glazed tile-lined tanks holding about 15,000 pounds of pulp each. It is thoroughly mixed, and kept in circulation for six hours, at a temperature of 100F. The fibres have then been bleached from a natural light brown wood color to pure white. The bleach liquor is then washed away, and the pulp is ready to be beaten, the first operation in the paper mill.

Old paper makers say, "Good paper is made in the beaters." Paper made from pulp as it comes from the pulp mill would be coarse and flimsy. It is in the beater room that pulp is given special characteristics fitting it for different grades of paper. The beater is a tub partly divided by a partition called a "mid-feather." The beater roll, four feet in diameter, revolves beside the mid-feather and the side of the beater. Regularly spaced around the roll are bronze bars. A "bed plate" of similar bars is placed under the roll on the floor of the beater. As the roll revolves the pulp circulates around the beater, and the fibres repeatedly pass between the roll and the bed plate. This reduces the fibres in size, and frays their ends, causing them to lock together more strongly in a sheet of paper.

A device for raising and lowering the beater roll enables the beater en gineer to regulate the intensity of the beating. This device enables him to give stock characteristics essential to any particular grade of paper desired. The floor of the beater is raised just behind the roll and is called the "back-fall." The slope thus given the floor of the beater aids in the circulation of pulp and its return to the beater roll.

Besides beating the stock, which process lasts several hours, the beater is a mixing tub where other necessary ingredients are added to pulp. It is here the paper is colored the shade desired. The fibres are also sized so that the finished paper will not absorb ink like blotting paper. Each fibre is a tiny tube, and will absorb moisture by capillary attraction. "Size milk" (an emulsion of rosin soap) is added to the pulp, and, when thoroughly mixed, a solution of alum is added, curdling the milk and causing fine particles of free rosin to deposit themselves on the fibres, sealing them.

After the beating process the pulp passes through a continuously acting machine called a Jordan refining engine. The action of the Jordan is similar to that of the beater, its continuous action insuring uniform pulp. The pulp is then stored in a "stock chest," ready for the paper machine.

A modern Fourdrinier paper machine is more than 200 feet long and it converts stock to paper at a rate of 450 feet a minute. Hammermill has five of these machines.

The stock is first mixed with a large quantity of water, and is then run over a series of rifflers and screens to remove foreign particles that may have mingled with it in the beaters. The pulp and water are retained in the "head-box" for a moment, to break any current and to insure a thorough, even mixture. From the head-box the stock flows through a long, narrow, open gate, called a nozzle, onto the Fourdrinier wire.

The Fourdrinier wire is an endless bronze screen, 65 feet long (32 feet double), of fine mesh (70 wires to an inch), the speed of which is so adjusted that the diluted stock gently flows over it as the wire travels under the nozzle. The water flows through the meshes of wire, depositing fibres on top. At the same time the fibres are thoroughly woven together by a shaking motion of the wire.

More water is removed by suction, and the fibres are gently pressed together by a fine wire roll called a "dandy roll." The paper is then about 20 percent dry (contains 80 percent water). It is next pressed between heavy granite rolls, called "press rolls," pressing out more water.

Deckle straps are heavy rubber strips traveling along with the edge of the wire and preventing the stock from overflowing. The weight of paper on the machine can be varied in one of two ways. It can be made heavier or lighter by making the machine run slower or faster, thus allowing more or less stock to flow onto the Fourdrinier wire. Again, the weight can be controlled by the amount of stock mixed with water as it flows from the nozzle. A greater amount of stock to a certain volume of water will make heavier paper, and vice versa.

The Hammermill watermark, invented by E. R. Behrend, president of Hammermill Paper Company, does not noticeably indent the surface of the paper thus keeping its printing quality unimpaired. It is applied by lettered rolls which press into the soft, wet fibres. After passing under the press rolls the paper is run over a series of steam-heated dryer rolls. Cotton dryer felts or blankets carry the paper and hold it against the rolls which dry the sheet and iron it. After dryer rolls, the paper goes to the calendars, chilled cast iron rolls which give the paper a smooth writing surface. For a very smooth or high finish the paper is run between all the rolls, and is sometimes calendared again on separate machines. Duller finish "bond" paper runs through fewer of the rolls. The rolls of paper are rewound onto smaller cores for handling, and the rough "deckle" edges are trimmed. A roll of paper weighs about 2,500 pounds and is completed in 40 minutes.

46. The LAKESIDE CEMETERY (open weekdays 7 am. to 8 p.m.), 1718 E. Lake Rd. (State 5), borders on Lake Erie. The cemetery covers a 45-acre tract planted with trees, shrubbery, and hedges. Burial plots receive perpetual care. Capt. Charles Vernon Gridley, commander of Admiral Dewey s flagship, Olympia, is buried in a plot called Gridley Circle, near the northern edge of the cemetery. It is marked by four antique bronze cannon, taken at Cavite when the Spanish surrendered. His son, John P. V. Gridley, who was killed by an explosion on the U.S.S. Missouri, is also buried there.

47. The GENERAL ELECTRIC CO. PLANT, E. Lake Rd., between Franklin Ave. and Lawrence Parkway, is a large group ot red brick industrial buildings occupying more than 800 acres. General Electric is the largest employer of labor in the Erie district with 6,300 on the payroll in 1938. The plant manufactures electric locomotives, motors, airbrake equipment, and refrigerators (see INDUSTRY AND COMMERCE). Retrace E. 6th St.; L. from E. 6th St. on East Ave.; R. from East Ave. on E. wth St.

48. The PENNSYLVANIA TELEPHONE BUILDING, 20 E. loth St., is a modern, modified Greek Classic structure of simple bold proportions. It houses an operating unit of the General Telephone Corporation of New York, which owns and operates the telephone systems in Corry, Union City, North East, Girard, and Edinboro. The Mutual Telephone Company, chartered in 1897, took over the Erie Telephone Co., and the New York-Pennsylvania Telephone and Telegraph Co., absorbed the local subscribers of the Bell Telephone Co. in 1926. The Mutual Telephone Co. became the Pennsylvania Telephone Corporation in 1930. The Bell Telephone Co. in Erie, however furnishes service for all long distance calls. L. from E. loth St. on French St.; from French St. on E. 12th St.

49. The TWELFTH STREET MARKET, SW cor. E. i2th and French Sts., housed in a 2 -story gray brick building extending to 13th St., is one of Erie s most popular market places. From 9 a.m. to 6 p.m. a steady stream of customers pass through the aisles to select vegetables, groceries, and meats. On Saturdays the regular clientele is enlarged by throngs of shoppers from outlying communities. Stalls are rented in most instances by farmers who market home-grown produce directly to the consumer. A State liquor store occupies the N.W. corner of the building.

50. The ERIE COUNTY ELECTRIC CO. OFFICE, NW cor. E. 12th and French Sts., is a 2-story red brick building. The company was chartered in 1898 as a subsidiary of the United Gas Improvement Company, of Philadelphia. It later absorbed the Edison Electric Light and Power Company, which Charles H. Strong, an early associate of Thomas A. Edison, had established in 1886. Strong was president of both companies until his death in 1936. The company supplies light and power to the townships of Greenfield, Greene, Venango, West Millcreek, and the borough of Wattsburg.

51. The ERIE DISPATCH-HERALD BUILDING, 20 E. mh St., occupying an "L" of the Erie County Electric Bldg., is the home of one of Erie s two daily newspapers, and the only Sunday newspaper published! in the city. It has a daily circulation of 40,000, and a Sunday circulations of 30,000. Its history involves a series of mergers dating from the found ing of the Gazette by Joseph M. Sterrett, on January 15, 1820. The Dispatch, founded in Waterford by James S. Young in 1851, had an important part in the Railroad War, or "Peanut War," of 1854. In 1856 the paper was moved to Erie, where it was operated as a weekly until 1 86 1, when it became a daily. Not long afterward it was discontinued; then, after three years, it reappeared. From 1864 to 1878 it was virtually the only English daily in Erie. In 1 890 the Dispatch purchased the Sunday Morning Gazette, a publication that was started on March 20, 1875, as the Saturday Evening Gazette, an outgrowth of the older Erie Gazette. The Sunday edition was discontinued in 1894, but the paper was continued as the Dispatch Gazette. It was purchased in 1902 by Charles H. Strong, Erie capitalist.

The Erie Herald appeared as an evening paper on July 20, 1876, with James R. Burns and H. C. Missimer, Erie high school teachers, as publishers. A few months later the paper was purchased by William L. Scott, who added a weekly edition. The Lake City Daily, a small paper started in 1878, was merged with the Herald in 1879. At Scott s death in 1891, his daughter, the late Mrs. Anna Wainwright Scott Strong, became owner. In 1922 Mrs. Strong s husband, owner of the Dispatch, bought her interest in the Herald and merged it with his paper, forming the present Erie Dispatch-Herald. The paper is a member of the Associated Press, and is conservative in editorial policy.

OTHER POINTS OF INTEREST

52. The CENTRAL MARKET HOUSE, State St. between i 5 th and 1 6th Sts. i? a long, rambling, one-story building of concrete and corrugated sheet iron. Stalls are rented to farmers who bring their produce here and sell it directly to the public. Sidewalk space is at a premium during the summer months, when green groceries are displayed and sold there.

53. MERCYHURST COLLEGE, 501 E. 3 8th St., conducted by the Sisters of Mercy, is an outgrowth of St. Joseph s Academy, founded in Titus ville in 1871. The college, built of variegated salmon-colored brick and trimmed in limestone, occupies the highest elevation in Glenwood Hills, and commands a splendid view of Erie City, Presque Isle Bay, the Peninsula, and Lake Erie; on clear days the Canadian shore, 30 miles distant, is clearly visible. The buildings occupy the center of a 75-acre tract of meadow and woodland. The principal building is a large brown tapes try brick structure with cut cast-stone trim. It is of Collegiate Gothic design. The high blue slate roof is pierced with tall dormer windows and lofty chimneys.

The curriculum covers three four-year courses of study leading to degrees in arts, home economics, and commerce. In the 1937-38 term, 212 women students were enrolled.

54. ACADEMY HIGH SCHOOL AND STADIUM extends from E. 26th St. to E. 29th St., and from French St. to State St. The building, of bold Tudor design, is of red brick, trimmed with sandstone, and was erected in 1920. It is a public senior high school with educational facilities for 2200 students, and a faculty of 81. The school was a pioneer in the school band and orchestra movement of Erie; and it is also the home of an a cappella ^hoir. The stadium adjoining the school to the north is Erie s largest outdoor arena. It is used for athletic activities of the city s schools and is equipped with electric flood lights for night sports. It has a seating capacity of 15,000. The grounds belong to the Board of Education, but the stadium was built with funds raised by subscription.

55. ERIE BREWING COMPANY, 2131 State St., a 4-story red brick building, is partially housed in a plant built by the Eagle Brewing Company in 1846. Ghosts of an older era of beer-making linger about the old cellars long and narrow with ceilings low and arched, the brick walls glistening with moisture. The office, repair shop, and bottling works are on the east side of State St. Great wooden vats, a huge copper kettle with a 420-barrel capacity; a cooperage room, where barrels are repaired; a boiler room; and a power house are on the west side of State St. The two buildings are connected by a brick-lined tunnel which runs under the street. The great kettle was first used on February 22, 1896. After each batch of mash is brewed, the kettle is washed and sterilized. As empty bottles are returned to the brewery, they are placed on a conveyor which carries them to a machine that steams and sterilizes them. They are then placed in cleaned boxes and sent on another conveyor to a machine that fills and caps the bottles. Again on a conveyor they pass the critical eye of an inspector who searches for any defects in contents, bottle, or cap. The last step before they are packed in crates to await shipment is pasteurization, during which the bottled beer is put through a heat test. The method for handling barreled beer is slightly different; returned empty barrels are cleaned and tested for leaks and are then placed under the machine that fills them. A nozzle is then fitted over the bunghole, and the beer is pumped into them. When the nozzle is removed the bung- hole is plugged with a wooden seal.

The WAYNE BREWING CO., E. i 7 th and Parade Sts., is the other large Erie brewery, the two comprising one of the leading industries of the city.

56. The UNITED STATES (POST OFFICE, Griswold Plaza between W. 1 3th and W. i4th Sts., is a light brick structure of Italian Renaissance inspiration, with an arched colonnade of 1 2 light marble columns on the main facade. It was built in 1932. A subway for the transfer of mail runs under i4th St. to the Union Station.

57. The UNION STATION, Peach St. between W. i 4 th and W. 15th Sts., was built in 1927 of rough brown firebrick and sandstone. It is modern in design, harmonizing in scale with the Post Office across the Plaza. Waiting, baggage rooms, and ticket offices are on the first floor, railroad offices and business firms occupy the second floor. The station is used by trains of the New York Central and Pennsylvania R. R.

58. HARRY KELLAR S BIRTHPLACE, SE cor. Sassafras and W. 1 6th Sts., a 2 -story unpainted frame house, was moved to its present location in 1890. At the time of Kellar s birth in 1849, the house was on W. 1 2th St. Kellar, an internationally famous magician, died in 1922.

59. ST. VINCENT S HOSPITAL, 2420 Sassafras St., a closeknit group of 6-story red brick and limestone buildings, was founded in 1874 by the order of the Sisters of St. Joseph. The older part of the building was erected at that time. The hospital was incorporated on December 10, 1894, as the St. Vincent s Hospital Association, which now consists of 60 members. These members elect annually a board of 7 trustees. Additions to the original structure have increased its capacity to 226 beds.

61. GLENWOOD PARK, Glenwood Park Rd., is a city-owned Park with a ZOO, picnic grounds, and recreational facilities. The zoo houses an East Indian elephant, monkeys, birds, and many animals of tropical origin. Enclosures on the hill back of the building contain bear, deer, bison, owls, and small game native to the county. Along Mill Creek, which traverses the park, are picnic and camping grounds (free), and a small open air auditorium. A baseball field and a 9-hole golf course (250 a round: $oc all day) are among the park s recreational facilities.

62. ERIE CEMETERY (open daily from 7:30 a. m. to sundown), main entrance at 2116 Chestnut St. The cemetery association was formed on January 29, 1850 and the grounds were opened the following May. The grounds, sloping gently towards the south, are cut into square sections by cement roads and walks. Some of the large elm and maple trees are a remnant of the original forest that covered the tract. In the NE section, near Chestnut St., is a sunken flower garden containing thousands of tulips.

64. ERIE LIGHTING COMPANY OFFICE, 21 W. loth St., is a 3 -story gray brick building trimmed with granite. The company was chartered in 1893 as the Merchants and Manufacturers Light, Heat and Power Company. The present name was acquired in 1911. It is a subsidiary of the Pennsylvania Electric Company and serves the boroughs of North East, Mill Village, and Wesleyville, and the townships of Lawrence Park, Harborcreek, and Millcreek.

CONTEMPORARY ERIE COUNTY

Topographically, Erie County consists of a series of ridges following a course parallel with the shores of Lake Erie. Beginning at the New York State line on the east, the hills rise 1,000 feet above the lake level and 1,500 feet above sea level. As the ranges extend westward they gradually decrease in altitude and the valleys become wider and smoother until, in the western half of the county, they flatten into gently rolling tablelands.

With the exception of Lake Erie there are but three lakes in the county, and they are small. Lake LeBoeuf, a mile east of Waterford, is the largest, and is widely known because of its historical associations as part of the route of early transportation down LeBoeuf Creek to the Allegheny River. The lake is about a mile in length and a half mile in width.

Conneautee Lake in Washington Township at Edinboro is about the same size as Lake LeBoeuf, but owes its area to a dam constructed at the point where Conneautee Creek pours from the south side of the lake t( meander southward to join French Creek in Crawford County. Lake Pleasant, the smallest of the three, is in the extreme southwest corner oi Venango Township.

The ranges of hills running through the county act as a divide for Eric County streams, those south of the divide emptying into French Creel The most important of these streams are the Cussewago, Conneautee, and LeBoeuf Creeks. Creeks emptying into Lake Erie are: Crooked Creel Elk Creek, Walnut Creek, Trout Run, Mill Creek, Four Mile, Six Mile Twelve Mile, and Sixteen Mile Creeks. Conneaut Creek runs across the southwest corner of Erie County to enter Ohio State and flow into Lake Erie at Conneaut, Ohio.

The soil of Erie County is varied. Along Lake Erie, stretching back from the bluff overlooking the shoreline, is a fertile plain composed of an alluvia sandy loam. This plain sinks to a swampy terrain, the whole floored a stratum of rocky shale or a clay hardpan. There are gravel beds at place in the foothills ascending from the lake plain. On the hills the soil is a heavy clay, hard to till, but made productive by constant working and the use of fertilizer. The wider valleys of the southern part are of deep, rich soil and are Erie County s most highly prized agricultural lands.

Most common trees of the area are beech, maple, birch, ironwood, hemlock, elm, ash, and oak, growing usually in woodlots without being segregated as to species. The ash, elm, and birch are found along streams and swamp lands. The others are found on plains and hillsides alike.

Other trees once plentiful but now few and scattered are: basswood, cucumber, whitewood, cherry, tupelo, hickory, walnut, butternut, hazel, and two species of poplar. Locust trees are grown by farmers because of their adaptability for fence posts. The chestnut, once plentiful but stricken by blight, is again increasing in number.

Among the shrubbery common to the region is dogwood, pawpaw, alder, wild plum, water beech, service berry, sumac, and several other varieties of swamp vegetation. Blackberries, wild raspberries, wild straw berries, dewberries, and a variety of blueberry, grow profusely in every fence corner, along every railroad track, and along highways and byways. Hundreds of varieties of wild flowers are scattered over the entire region, the most common being violets, anemones, trilliums, may apples, adder tongues, bluebells, hepatica, Solomon s seal, and jack-in- the-pulpit.

Many birds inhabit Erie County s forests and cities. The English spar row, which remains all winter, the migratory robins, bluebirds and finches, every type of songbird, warbler, thrush, and ground sparrow is present, as well as predatory hawks, crows, and blackbirds. Game birds, quail, pheasant, woodcock, grouse, and snipe live in the swales and shrubbery. Ducks and geese stop in their long flights to rest and feed in the lakes and ponds.

Wild animals include mink, muskrat, opossum, coon, skunk, rabbit, squirrel, weasel, and an occasional fox. Two small herds of deer inhabit the county, one in Conneaut Township and one in Peninsula State Park.

The streams abound in bass, muskellunge, trout, pike, perch, and the less desirable carp, sucker, and bullhead.

The county, exclusive of the city of Erie, is primarily agricultural. Although there are several large factories in the various boroughs, most of the communities are agricultural Girard and Springfield are known for potatoes; Waterford for dairies and cabbage; and North East for grapes and cherries. Many acres of Concord grape lands and cherry orchards lie along the county s shore line.

Moisture from Lake Erie moderates the climate so that the region is little troubled by early frosts. Grapes, melons, cherries, apples, berries of various kinds, as well as virtually all vegetables, are grown abundantly. In recent years tomatoes have become a large crop.

South of the lake shore plain dairying and general farming are the chief agricultural pursuits. Cereal grains, hay, corn, potatoes, cabbage, and maple sugar products are raised in large quantities. Erie cabbage is especially fine and abundant. Poultry raising is a recent but highly profitable in dustry. Erie County ranks sixth in the State in the production of cabbage, peaches, and apples.

An important activity is the culture of grapes, which in Erie County are largely of the Concord variety. Vineyards border the highways in eastern Erie County, where hundreds of acres are given over to them. Grapes grow well all along the lake, but are most abundant in Harborcreek and North East Townships. Before the depression of 1929, grape lands brought high prices.

Catawba grapes are a very old crop, some vineyards having been planted as early as 1857. But intensive grape cultivation did not begin in this region until 1866, when Concords became the favorite variety. In 1935 Erie County had approximately 7,000 acres or 7,384,089 grape vines under cultivation.

The price of Erie grapes has ranged from $20 to $100 a ton. Because of this erratic price range, the acreage in recent years has been reduced about 20 per cent. Grapes are shipped throughout the United States, and even to Europe in recent years, but large percentages of the crop is now being processed in the county. Grape juice is the chief product in the county, but some of the crop goes to wineries in New York.

The growing of other fruit is extensive, especially on the lake shore plain. Approximately 4,700 acres are devoted to apple trees, 5,100 to peaches, 1,165 to cherries, and about 500 acres to plums.

In 1935 Erie County had 71,158 acres in hay, 23,312 in oats, 4,235 in winter wheat, and 9,080 in potatoes. While the potato acreage has de creased somewhat in recent years, the yield is higher, because of better seed and methods of production. According to the 1930 census, there were 6,926 acres in buckwheat, 1,712 in rye, and 568 in barley.

About 1,500 acres along the lake front and extending across the count are devoted to truck farming. Erie County potatoes and cabbage are usually marketed in Pittsburgh and Cleveland. Sweet corn is another quantity product.

There were 41,984 head of cattle (of which 24,490 were milch cows). 8,555 horses, 6,909 hogs, and 3,334 sheep in the county on January 1, 1935, an average year.

There are only about half as many horses in the county as there wei 15 years ago, the auto and truck having supplanted them. The total value of Erie County's livestock is approximately $2,500,000; livestock products, including dairy, poultry, and wool, amount to an additional $2,500,000. The value of all farm lands is approximately $25,000,000, including buildings. There are 5,386 farms, with average value of $4,663. The total acreage of farmland in the county is 403,563, with an average individual farm of 74.9 acres.

GOVERNMENT

The chief instrument of government in Erie County is a board of three commissioners elected by the people. The commissioners appoint certain minor officials, assess and levy county taxes, appropriate county funds, initiate building and road projects, and administer all elections.

There are 2 2 townships in Erie County. Lawrence Park, the only first- class township, is governed by five commissioners elected by the people. They appoint a solicitor, an engineer, police officers, and other employees. All the other townships of the county are of the second class. They are governed by a board of three supervisors. Other officials are one township assessor, three auditors, and one tax collector. Schools in first and second- class townships are managed by an elected board of five directors, who are responsible to the county superintendent of schools.

There are three elected judges in Erie County courts. They preside over the Court of Common Pleas, the Court of Quarter Sessions, and Orphans Court. Other elected officials of the county government are a county controller, a treasurer, a surveyor, a sheriff, a coroner, a district attorney, a prothonotary, a clerk of courts, a register of wills, a recorder of deeds, and two jury commissioners.

ERIE COUNTY TOUR 1

Presque Isle Primula State Park

Erie to Peninsula State Park and return, State 5 and State 832, 22.2 tn. Paved throughout. Speed restricted to 25 m., 15 m. in Water Works Park reservation. Cars may not pass on the park highways.

W. from State St. on W. mh St.; R. from W. 12 St. on Liberty Blvd.; L. from Liberty Blvd. on State 5; R. from State 5 on State 832.

FROM the entrance of Waldameer Park, 4.3 m., a commercial amuse ment center, the highway winds down a cliff overlooking Lake Erie and Presque Isle Bay. Tall, slender trees form a canopy over the highway. A constant lake breeze sweeps the entire peninsula, cooling the flat, sunswept beach.

At 4.7 7/2., near the "Neck," as the narrow approach to the Peninsula is called, is the SITE OF THE LAST INDIAN VILLAGE in Erie County. The now extinct Massassauga Indian tribe lived here. The remains of the Massassauga Hotel, a summer resort of the i85o s, are on the R., hidden by trees and underbrush.

Along the Neck, brief patches of Lake Erie are visible through the trees (L); R. is Presque Isle Bay. The area of woods, lily pads, and mud lying between the mainland and the Neck, (R), known as The Marshes, is a refuge for ducks and geese. Sandpipers race busily along the water's edge, and just of! shore large and small mouth black bass lurk in shadows of root growth and water-soaked driftwood.

Willows, poplars, and other fast-growing trees have been planted on the Neck as protection against storm damage to the highway, once under constant threat of the lake washing a channel through to the bay during seasonal storms.

The BOUNDARY OF PRESQUE ISLE PENINSULA STATE PARK, 4.9 m., is just east of Edgewater Beach Restaurant.

The park, now occupying most of the peninsula acreage, was created by an Act of Assembly in 1921, making possible development of the area as a recreational center. A commission appointed by the Governor of Pennsylvania administers the affairs of the park. Employed by the Park Commission are a police detail which patrols the park and a force of life guards for the protection of bathers. Thousands visit the bathing beaches during the summer, and the peninsula is thronged on holidays and week ends.

Bathing suits are not rented at any of the beaches.

At various points along the shore, a riprap makes bathing dangerous, and care must be taken along the unguarded beaches to avoid striking large, sharp-edged stones under the surface while diving.

Both the bay and lake afford good fishing. Many fine catches of black bass are taken from the bay. Perch, pike, catfish, and bullhead are caught in large numbers from the stone jetties and from the north pier, while a mile off the northeastern tip of the peninsula are the famous pike grounds which have given Erie a high rating in the fresh water fish industry.

In Peninsula State Park all animal as well as plant life is protected. Dogs must be on a leash.

The park is open from sunrise until midnight from June through September.

A bridle trail parallels the drive (R), for about 2 m.

Eastward of the entrance the peninsula gradually widens, forming a broad beach on the lake front (L), where picnic tables have been set for public use.

BEACH NO. 1, j.^ m., (L), is the westernmost of the protected beaches. Lifeguards are on duty continuously during the summer. A bathhouse and a refreshment stand are situated at this beach between the highway and the water s edge.

POLICE BARRACKS, 5.6 m., (R), a newly constructed cottage of rust-colored shingles, is the headquarters of the park police. A first-aid station is maintained here.

The beach opposite the police station, though unguarded, is extensively used.

BEACH NO. 2, 6.0 m., (L), is equipped with a bathhouse and refresh ment stand. This beach, one of the most popular on the peninsula, is favored by family parties. Tables and simple but serviceable cook stoves are provided for picnic lunches. There is a diving board on the break water. Horseshoe courts are R. of the highway.

The LILY POND, 7.0 m., (R), is named for the yellow and white pond lilies along its shores. It is a breeding ground for bass, sunfish, and frogs. The narrow inlet leading from the bay is only a few yards in length and is crossed by the bridle path. A small rustic bridge arches over the sluggish little stream, making a scene with its flanking trees and bay background.

At 7.7 m., is a BASEBALL DIAMOND, (R). Amateur teams of Erie industrial plants use this field.

The highway here gradually leaves the lake shore and approaches the bay side. The bridle path crosses the road near the ball diamond and enters a forest, (L), through which it meanders for several miles.

Under the trees on the bay shore, 50 yards to the R., Commodore Perry s ship, NIAGARA, 7.4 m., lies patiently in her cradle, awaiting ac tion of the State legislature to be restored. The hull, painted with creosote, looms darkly in the shadow of the trees. Devoid of decks or superstructure, the old craft presents a sad contrast to her famed record. An appropriation of $50,000 was passed in 1931 for rebuilding and repairing the Niagara, to preserve her as an historical relic. Before restoration work was begun, the money was diverted to relief purposes by the passage of the Talbot Act.

With the Lawrence and the Ariel, the Niagara had been constructed in Presque Isle Bay near the foot of present Cascade St. (see CITY TOUR 2). Capt. Daniel Dobbins, prominent Erie citizen, was commissioned by President Madison to start building a fleet powerful enough to cope with the British. Oliver Hazard Perry, a young Navy lieutenant, arrived in Erie on March 27, 1813, to take command. Ship carpenters were few, and timber had to be cut in the forests and used green. The Lawrence and the Niagara, each of 260 tons, were launched May 24. On August ist, Perry received the troops he had awaited, and, after the heavy ships had been floated over the sand bar at the channel, the fleet set out for Sandusky, Ohio, on August 12.

The fleet arrived at Sandusky Bay on August 17 and awaited the arrival of Gen. William Henry Harrison, who was 27 miles distant with an army of 8,000 regulars, militia, and Indians. Perry was informed the enemy was short of provisions, and must engage the Americans to open the way to Long Point, opposite Erie, in Canada. The British naval force consisted of 502 men, commanded by Capt. Robert Barclay, who had served with Lord Nelson at the Battle of Trafalgar Bay. The British squadron consisted of six vessels and 63 guns.

The Americans numbered 490 men, nine vessels, and 54 guns.

At sunrise, September 10, the British fleet was sighted approaching Put-in-Bay. The American squadron cautiously maneuvered to inter cept the British fleet. While the British were still 5 miles distant, Perry called the crew about him, raised the burgess on which were the famous words of Capt. James Lawrence, "Don t give up the Ship."

"My brave lads, the flag contains the last words of Captain Lawrence. Shall I hoist it?" "Aye, aye, sir" was the ringing answer, and the blue and white flag soon was flying from the main masthead.

The two squadrons slowly neared each other, and at a distance of 1 1 / 2 miles a bugle call was heard aboard the Detroit, flagship of the British squadron. The ships sailed into battle formation. The slower sailing craft among the American vessels were out of their positions and the American line overspread the British by 1,000 feet.

In accordance with his plan to bring the British vessels to close range, Perry s flagship, the Lawrence , withheld fire until within canister shot of the Detroit. After two hours of fighting the Lawrence was a battered wreck, two-thirds of her crew killed or wounded, and Perry abandoned her and boarded the Niagara.

For two hours neither fleet gained a point. The wind had died down and the ships were becalmed. With a slight freshening of the breeze, Perry turned the Niagara s course toward the enemy s line. The British, still unable to gain steerage way, were compelled to sit idly by as the Niagara slipped between the Queen Charlotte, British ship of the line, and the Detroit, raking them both with grape and canister. So successful was (Perry s strategy that the British fleet was soon forced to surrender.

The shattered Lawrence hoisted her flag amid feeble cheers on her deck. The British casualties had been 41 killed and 94 wounded; in the American fleet, 27 were killed and 96 wounded.

That day Perry wrote his famous message to General Harrison on the back of an old envelope.

Dear General: We have met the enemy and they are ours; two ships, two brigs, one schooner, and one sloop.

Yours with great respect and esteem. O. H. Perry

Of the American ships which so jauntily sailed into battle, efforts have been made to preserve only one, the Niagara.

Within a few months of the arrival at Erie of the victorious fleet and its captives, the Lawrence was scuttled in Misery Bay, being no longer fit for service. The Niagara was made a receiving ship, but she too was soon sunk beside the Lawrence.

One hundred years from the time she was sunk, the Niagara was raised and rebuilt to take part in the 1913 Perry Centennial at Erie. She toured the lakes under sail and was returned to Erie. She passed from the hands of the State to the City of Erie, and was beached in Misery Bay, where she remained a short time before being pumped out and towed to the foot of State Street, at the public dock, where she was visited by thousands of sightseers. In 1931, the Niagara was taken to her present location on Presque Isle.

WATER WORKS PARK RESERVATION (175 acres owned by the Water Commission of the City of Erie,) and WATER WORKS BEACH are at 7.57 m. There is a large picnic ground with tables and seats to the R.; the bathing beach is to the L. At this beach clothing may be checked free of charge. There is a refreshment stand and a public telephone beside the roadway.

The beach is smooth and level, the water ranging from a few inches to several feet in depth. The formation of the lake floor along the peninsula beaches is unusual, in that for several yards from the shore the water becomes about five feet in depth, then, at a distance of 20 yards or more from shore, sandbars parallel the shore and again lessen the depth.

At the eastern extremity of the Water Works Reservation the peninsula again broadens.

At 8.0 m., the highway forks to form the loop known as GOVERNOR FISHER DRIVE. This driveway leads along the lake beach, circles the peninsula and returns along the bay shore. A gray stone marker, commemorating ex-Governor Fisher, to whom the loop was dedicated, stands at the entrance of this drive.

L. at the fork on the lake side.

The RED CROSS STATION, 8.1 m. (R), is open during the bathing season. Great oaks and maples, interspersed with hemlocks, form a wooded area (R). Among the trees are clumps of shrubbery and flowers and examples of almost every type of flora common to the region.

STONE JETTY BEACH, 8.4 m. (L), was named for the heavy stone jetty that slants out into the lake. The beach is fringed with trees under which are laid out attractive picnic grounds with stone fireplaces and rustic benches. There is a bathhouse and refreshment stand.

At 8.6 m., is the FOX POND (R), a protected preserve where hundreds of wild mallard duck have their nesting places. Mallards seldom permit close approach and at the slightest suggestion of danger take to the air. These wild fowl of the Fox Pond colony, however their fear of hunters now allayed noisily beg titbits from the throngs who gather at the rustic fence separating pond from road. Leaving the water they waddle to the fence and take food from the hands of visitors. Protected from hunters, they enjoy a life of ease and well-fed comfort; and never fail to excite the admiration of game lovers with their richly colored feathers and not unmusical clamor.

For nearly a mile the highway leads through a dense forest growth on one side, with the blue waters of the lake on the other, before reaching the PRESQUE ISLE LIGHTHOUSE, 9.3 m. (R), operated by the United States Department of Commerce, Bureau of Lighthouses. The brick portion, including the square light tower, was built in 1871. The well-keptgrounds about the buildings are surrounded by a white picket fence, and are tended by the lighthouse keeper s family.

In the log book kept by the present lighthouse keeper and his predecessors for more than 50 years, are graphic stories of the life of Lake Erie seamen. Made highly dramatic by extreme simplicity are the terse his tories of shipwrecks and human suffering.

Life for the early lighthouse keeper and his family was one of isolation and loneliness. His supplies came weekly from the mainland by boat to Misery Bay, and were then packed on sturdy shoulders and carried two miles over a narrow path through the forest. There were no highways on the peninsula then, and few visitors called at the snug brick cottage.

The heaviest forest on the peninsula is to the rear of the lighthouse. Some of these great trees are the oldest in the county, and in this area are found some of the rarest specimens of plant life in northwestern Pennsylvania. A certain variety of mocassin, a flower of the orchid family, little known in the western hemisphere, is found here, growing from dead logs and stumps partially buried in the ground. Indian pipe and wisteria are plentiful. Certain rare types of grasses have interested botanical students.

Once famous for cranberries, the peninsula attracted hundreds of pickers seeking the rich, red fruit, and was the scene of an annual celebration, Cranberry Day. With the exception of a few small patches along the walk running from Misery Bay to the lighthouse, cranberries are now gone.

Cranberry Day, the first Tuesday in October, was once one of the important annual festival days in Erie. Thousands of Erie s citizens packed picnic baskets and crossed the bay by boat to enter the cranberry marshes that were in the center of the peninsula directly opposite the Erie Public Dock. The cranberries were used in home made jams and jellies, and were occasionally marketed at the public market places. The State Legislature, in 1841, made Cranberry Day an Erie holiday. An Act of Assembly soberly decreed "that it shall be contrary to the peace and dignity of the Commonwealth and subversive of the good order of the community, as well as of the great State of Pennsylvania, for any person to pick cranberries on the peninsula between the first of July and the first Tuesday of October."

City Council, in order to halt a growing practice of poaching, passed an ordinance in 1865 providing that the right to harvest the cranberries be sold to the highest bidder, the successful bidder to be empowered to prosecute the cranberry poachers. The ordinance proved to be ineffective inasmuch no provision was made for enforcement. The poachers devised long handled rakes to comb the vines, thus stripping the cranberry bushes bare of fruit. The successful bidder was thus defrauded the benefits of his franchise.

Council rescinded the monopoly ordinance after indignation meetings were held by Erie citizens who demanded the right to gather the cranberries on the first Tuesday of October.

Cranberry Day, however, is no longer observed. Affected by a blight early in the 1900 $, most of the cranberry bushes died and Cranberry Day became an empty occasion.

THE UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH BOTANICAL OBSERVA TORY, 9.4 m., (R), is a small building located in an open field. Here students come in summer to study peninsula flora.

BEACH NO. 3, 10.9 m., (L), lies near the east end of the peninsula It is wide and sandy, has a refreshment stand and bathhouse. Tables and benches, cook stoves and firewood are free to visitors. It is the longest patroled beach on the lake shore. Just beyond the refreshment stand the combined churches of Erie celebrate Easter services annually.

Two hundred yards L. of the highway is a GULL SANCTUARY These gulls, or terns, flock in thousands on the sandy shore. They are a familiar sight as they wheel about over the water, diving for fish. The Park and Harbor Commission feeds them in winter.

THE FOGHORN, n.o m., (L), located half way between the roac and the beach, is supported high on stiltlike steel columns. On foggy days and during the misty early morning hours when navigation is open from March until late December, the horn can be heard five to ten miles away. Every three minutes three great husky notes roar warning to approaching craft that land is near and sandbars endanger the fog-blinded navigator.

At / 7.5 m. is a junction with a cinder road.

Left on this road is THOMPSON S BAY, 0.4 m. Many people with small children use this protected beach for picnics and bathing parties The water is shallow, and is considered safer than the regular beaches THE COAST GUARD STATION, i.o m., (R), is a small reservation on the lake channel. The few houses are inhabited by members of the station and their families. The first United States Coast Guard Station on the peninsula was established about 1880, near the old foghorn on the north shore. In the early part of this century the station was moved to its present location. The station is manned by a crew of 15 regular seamen under the command of a boatswain's mate At 12.1 m., (R), a cement walk leaves the highway and traverses the peninsula to the lighthouse. The two-mile walk was built to facilitate the transporting of supplies to the lighthouse. It passes through some of the peninsula s heaviest thickets and stands of timber. Poison ivy should be avoided. Mosquitoes are also troublesome. Wildflowers are profuse during the spring and early summer.

In this area are birds of every local kind, small animals, and a herd of 30 deer. Deer tracks are often seen on the soft banks of the lagoons, and occasionally the shy animals may be glimpsed through the underbrush. Mink, muskrats, and weasel are plentiful, as are raccoon, skunk, and opossum.

At 12.2 m., is the entrance to the LAGOONS and Captain Cook s Boathouse (rates $oc an hour and up). The highway crosses the lagoons over a concrete bridge, from which is a view of the westward reaches curving around a wooded spit. The boathouse is to the R. The lagoons may be explored by boats and canoes.

The main waterway penetrates the peninsula more than five miles, swelling occasionally into ponds. There are four of these ponds between the entrance and Fox Pond, the last. The water is shallow, and the bottom is of soft mud. Along the shores and extending several feet, sometimes yards, into the water are dense growths of lily pads and reeds. Fishing is fair; catches consist of bullhead, suckers, carp, and various species of bass. Pickerel and muskellunge are sometimes taken.

During the early spring, redfin suckers and carp invade the lagoons in droves to spawn. Fishermen row their skiffs into the lagoons when the fish are so numerous that boatmen stun them with their oars and haul them into the boats. Some of the carp weigh as much as 50 pounds. Small boys wade into the water, grasp the huge fish by the tails and wrestle them through the mud to the banks.

Trees hang over the lagoons on both sides. Along the banks are many kinds of plant life. Pink ladyslippers and wild columbine make the open places in the forest even more lovely in spring.

MISERY BAY, /2.j m., (L), is a body of water covering 50 or more acres, extending into the peninsula and connected by a wide inlet in Presque Isle Bay. Lieutenant Holdup, an officer of Perry s fleet, named it Misery Bay because of the gloomy weather and comfortless living conditions aboard the navy ships during the winter of 1813-1814, when the victorious fleet anchored there.

In CRYSTAL POINT PARK, 12.6 m., (L), is the PERRY MONUMENT, erected, in honor of Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry. Erected by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in 1926, the monument is a tall quadrate shaft of Indiana limestone. Around the base are wide, low steps, which visitors climb to read the inscription on a plaque listing the names of the ships that took part in the Battle of Lake Erie. It is 50 yards from the highway on a narrow point extending between Misery Bay and Presque Isle Bay. The plot has been landscaped. Shrubbery, carefully nurtured lawns studded with cannon and anchors from Perry s ships, and well- trimmed trees furnish the foreground of the memorial.

Left of the monument is the old battleship, Wolverine, formerly the USS Michigan, the first iron ship of the United States Navy (built 1843), and the only warship on the Great Lakes for over 80 years. The Wolver ine was used as a training ship and sailed under her own power until 1923. She was then towed to her final moorings near the monument where she now lies, listing uneasily in the mud of Misery Bay. Lily pads grow about her hull, sunfish and pollywogs play in and out of her paddle-wheel housings, her planking is fast rotting, decks are unsafe, and the cabins marred and wrecked.

James Nesbit, who named Crystal Point, was familiarly known as "Skip per Jim." "Skipper Jim" claimed squatter rights, denied by a court ruling, to a large section of peninsula land. He claimed he obtained these rights by occupation of the property over a period of twenty-one years. The aged man and his family lived in a rude shelter in a plot which he called "Crystal Point." Although considered eccentric, the skipper was big hearted and companionable.

From Crystal Point there is another good view of Erie. Several hundred yards off shore from 10 to 20 lake freighters anchor for the winter. Presque Isle Bay is an ideal wintering place, because of the shelter af forded by the peninsula.

At 13.4 m., FLOATING MARSH TRAIL branches to the R. and passes through a stand of beech and oak timber to approach the lagoons. At Long Pond, one of the largest of the lagoon ponds, the trail forks. The L. fork continues along the ridge, and Long Pond Trail turns R. to follow the shores of the lagoons. A half mile distant, east, is the only fire tower on the peninsula.

From this point tall trees line both sides of the road.

At 14.2 m. is the loop intersection. The tour returns to Erie by way of State 832 and State 5.

COUNTY TOUR 2

This boat tour passes many of the points of interest described in City Tours i, 2, and 3 and County Tour i. The usual tour treatment of these points has therefore been omitted. County Tour 2 is a trip around Presque Isle Bay, through the lake channel, and into Lake Erie. The tour ends at Six Mile Creek, eastward of the channel, and retraces to the bay. Most visitors to Erie arrange to take a boat trip, and Erie citizens assert that this is the best way to see the city. (Boats are available at the Public Steamboat Landing, foot of State St., during the summer season. Ro.wboats, 25$ for ist hour, 15$ for additional hours; motor boats 50$ ist hour, 30$ an hour thereafter. Better rates by the day.) (Motor yachts at the Public Landing offer frequent trips around the bay and on the lake. 50$ a person. Guide.)

THE SHORE line to the left, as the boat moves west from the public Steamboat Landing, is a panorama of boats, drying nets, squat buildings, and smokestacks. Great reels of drying fish-nets stand in rows between the rambling buildings of the fish houses. This is the scene of an industry that for a long period made Erie the greatest fresh water fish center in the world. Because of the sudden unexplained disappearance of the ciscoes, a fresh water herring, in 1925, Erie has fallen from the production average of 30,000 tons a year between 1895 and 1920, to 1,750 tons in 1937. Of a fleet of 125 fishing tugs only a dozen remain. Sturgeon, before 1865, were considered valueless and were a nuisance to fishermen. The finding of several large sturgeon in a net meant that the net was torn and ruined by the desperate efforts of the fish to escape. Weighing from 50 to 200 pounds, they were powerful and their struggles were terrific. After their numbers had been considerably reduced they were found to be of value in the making of caviar. Their roe, averaging from 20 to 60 pounds a fish, was spiced and pickled for that purpose and shipped to eastern cities. Isinglass and slunk were made from their bladders. Slunk is a tube used in breweries to fasten over brass barrelling taps to direct the flow of beer and ale into kegs.

At the foot of Chestnut St. is the State Fish Hatchery. Millions of ciscoe spawn are hatched here annually and released in the lake (see CITY TOUR 2).

West of the Fish Hatchery is a unit of the Erie City Waterworks Pumping Station and Filtration plant. A concrete bathing pool is maintained by the city. Bathing is free to children. The city provides swimming instructors.

The sand and coal docks of the Pennsylvania Railroad extend 200 yards into the bay and are easily identified by the huge piles of sand and the hundreds of cars of coal standing on the tracks.

Behind the docks is visible the 5o-foot cliff which overlooks the bay and atop which is the city of Erie. On a prominence overlooking the coal dock and railroad yards, at the foot of Cascade St., is a marker on the site of the shipyard in which ships of Perry s fleet were built (see CITY TOUR 2).

Around the end of the coal dock and snuggled under an overhanging cliff, on the shores of a deep cove, is a group of shacks occupied by a dozen families who have pre-empted about two acres of city-owned land and have built homes thereon. Between the produce derived from their gardens and desultory fishing expeditions these people eke a bare living without the necessity of holding jobs in Erie s industry. They pay no taxes. Efforts on the part of the city to break up the colony have been unsuccessful and the squatters continue their occupation unmolested by city or county authorities.

At the foot of Lincoln Avenue, about three miles from the Public Steam boat Landing, is a small community called Eaglehurst. Here, on the shores of the bay, is a group of summer cottages owned by Erie residents. Here, also, is a company which rents boats and fishing tackle to sportsmen.

A short distance west is the Erie Yacht Club. Moored to floats in the bay are a number of motor yachts and sailing craft belonging to members of the club. The three-story, frame clubhouse, standing under the bluff, is a favorite recreational spot for socialite members.

Between the Yacht Club and the head of the Peninsula is an area known as The Marshes. This is a favorite bass fishing ground. It is also a refuge for migratory birds, geese, ducks, and swan, during their annual flights from the far north to winter resting grounds. During the months of November and December, before the bay has frozen over, the water in this area is black with the resting migrants. During the season, hunters may shoot these birds, but must be careful not to hunt within several hundred yards of the Peninsula, or shoot towards its shores.

Hidden by the trees on the head of the Peninsula is an old weather- beaten frame building. The exterior is of vertically nailed hemlock boards battened with strips of fir. A decorative frieze board and two ornate cupolas adorn the shingled roof. This was the old Massassauga Hotel, a resort hotel of the i89o s. It was named for an Indian tribe, the last to occupy the region (see COUNTY TOUR 1).

The shores of the Peninsula curve eastward around the north side of the bay. The entrance to the yacht slip on the Erie Waterworks Park Reservation is marked by a buoy. The Niagara, flagship of Perry s fleet, is also on the Reservation (see COUNTY TOUR 1).

At Crystal Point is a small landscaped park containing PERRY S MONUMENT and the Wolverine (see COUNTY TOUR 1).

The entrance of Misery Bay into Presque Isle Bay is east of Crystal Point. Misery Bay is a small body of water connected to the bay by a narrow strait. The Niagara, the Lawrence, and a British ship were sunk in Misery Bay after the Battle of Lake Erie (see COUNTY TOUR1).

The lake channel is at the extreme east end of the Peninsula. The con crete breakwater to the left is North Pier, on which is the U. S. Coast Guard Reservation (see COUNTY TOUR 1). The breakwater to the right is South Pier. These two piers are the scene of many fishing parties. Fishermen daily flock to the piers to still fish for bass, sheephead, and perch.

When the boat leaves the channel and enters the lake a distinct difference in motion is noticeable aboard. The boat rises and falls in a swinging, rocking motion.

To the right is Erie s shoreline. The Soldiers and Sailors Home sets at the top of Garrison Hill. Wayne Blockhouse is nearby (see CITY TOUR 3). The Perry Iron Works and the Hammermill Paper Company oc cupy about a mile of the shoreline from the Soldiers Home eastward.

Four Mile Creek, with its densely wooded valley, is about two miles from the channel. This was once the scene of a large amusement park. The coming of Prohibition in 1918 ruined the commercial value of the park and the buildings were allowed to deteriorate.

Eastward the lake bluffs rise higher along the shore line, and the beaches are less sandy. Boulders on the lake floor force boats larger than row- boats and small motor-craft to take a route farther out into the lake.

Some distance off shore, in water about 30 feet in depth, are commercial fishing nets. The nets are attached to long, slim pilings driven into the lake floor, and are suspended from buoys placed between the pilings at intervals of six to eight feet. Once a day the nets are emptied by a fleet of fishing smacks.

At Six Mile Creek, a stream favored by fishermen, there is a boat con cession and refreshment stand. The beach, covered with fist-sized, water- smoothed stones, is not well adapted to swimming.

Erie-Fairview-Girard West Springfield N. Springfield Erie, US 20, State 5, 52.9 m. New York Central and Nickel Plate R.R. s. parallel throughout; the Pennsylvania R.R. system parallels route to Girard. Paved throughout. Tourist accommodations available.

THIS route traverses a farm region ideally adapted to the growing of cereal grains and to truck farming. A large number of greenhouses and tree nurseries are on US 20. State 5 crosses Erie County near the shores of Lake Erie, and, because of the Lake Country climate, is rapidly becoming a favored fruit growing belt. Peaches, apples, cherries, and numerous berries including a heavy crop of strawberries, furnish an increasing income to Erie County farmers. Roadside stands offer wide choice of farm produce. S. from izth St. on State St.; R. from State St. on W. 26th St. (US 20).

At j.2 m. 9 is the village of WEST MILLCREEK.

At 8.f m., is the crest of WALNUT CREEK HILL. This place is known locally as Swanville, for Capt. Richard Swan, an early settler. The KAHKWA COUNTRY CLUB (L), with a private i8-hole golf course, is screened by a hedge and tall rows of Lombardy poplars.

After descending Walnut Creek Hill, the highway crosses Walnut Creek. High sandstone and shale cliffs border the creek.

The road climbs from the creek and enters FAIR VIEW, n.8 m. (alt. 717, pop. 459, borough, inc. 1868) on the first terrace-like plain above Lake Erie. It was named by early settlers because of its scenic beauty.

The borough is served by the New York Central Railroad, the Central Greyhound Bus Lines, and the West Ridge Transportation Co. The rail road station is half a mile north of Fairview.

The village, originally called Sturgeonville for William and Jeremiah Sturgeon, covers an area of one square mile. William Sturgeon built and operated the first hotel, and built the first schoolhouse. Neither is now standing.

Agriculture is the chief industry of the region, and the soil is rich and productive. The borough is almost exclusively residential, a small basket factory being the only manufacturing enterprise.

Fairview has four churches Methodist Episcopal, Presbyterian, Epis copal, and Evangelical Lutheran.

At 12.5 m., is BNAI BRITH (R), a Jewish home for orphans between the ages of 5 and 12. The group of three two-and-one-half story red brick buildings is set back from the highway in a wide landscaped lawn. Supported by individual contributions, a per capita levy on members of the B nai B rith lodges, and the Erie County Institutional district, the in stitution provides a home and educational facilities for about 60 children.

At 12.5 m., (L), is the ERIE COUNTY AIRPORT, privately owned and equipped as an aviation school.

The ERIE COUNTY HOME, 13.0 m., (open Friday) is a 3 -story red brick structure with two wings fronting toward the highway connected with a long, rectangular rear portion. A low pediment over the entrance is supported by four fluted columns. The home is maintained by the County as a residence for indigent citizens. Connected with the home is the County Farm, a large tract of land cultivated by the residents, the produce being used to help support the home.

The SACRED HEART MISSION HOUSE (R), is at 14.7 m. (open daily; guide). The main building is a large red brick, rectangular structure with the entrance fronting a small circular flower bed. A figure of Christ surmounts the low pediment supported by two fluted columns. A private roadway over a slightly arched bridge crossing a narrow water way connecting two ponds, leads to the main building. The grounds are screened from the highway by tall evergreens. The Mission is conducted by Priests of the Order of the Divine Word. It has an enrollment of students who come from all parts of the United States to train for foreign missionary service.

At 15.3 m. y is GIRARD (818 alt.; 1,554 PP-; borough, inc. 1846). The borough and township were named for Stephen Girard, Philadelphia cap italist, who owned a large tract of land in the vicinity. Girard is served by the Bessemer and Lake Erie Railroad, the Nickel Plate Railroad, the Central Greyhound Lines, and the West Ridge Transportation Company.

Along the tree-shaded streets of the quiet town are large rambling white-painted dwellings of the farmhouse type.

The first settlers in the township were William Silverthorn and his son, Capt. Abraham Silverthorn, who came from Fayette County in 1798. The next year Robert Brown settled at the mouth of Elk Creek, nearby. The original town was on the west side of Elk Creek and is now known as West Girard. When the Erie-Pittsburgh Canal was built in 1844, on the east side of the creek, many families built homes on the top of the hill to the east.

Girard residents are largely retired farmers and business men who have chosen this pleasant village for their homes. The older stock of the settle ment were English and German, with a sprinkling of Scotch and Irish. In later years there was an influx of Slavs and Russians, who purchased or leased farms.

The HUTCHINSON HOUSE, 155 Main St., was built about 1830 by Myroi Hutchinson, an Erie County judge. The simple 2 -story red brick build ing is Georgian Colonial in style.

The DAN RICE SOLDIERS and SAILORS MONUMENT, a cylindrical marble shaft surmounted by an American eagle, was erected in 1865, by Dan Rice, circus owner and clown. Designed by Leonard Volk of Chicago, the monument occupies a prominent position in the public square. Rice always maintained a residence in Girard, and was considered one of its leading citizens. His monument is said to be the first erected to the memory of Civil War veterans.

A weekly, the Cosmopolite-Herald, the only newspaper in the township, is published in Girard. The borough has five churches: Presbyterian, Methodist Episcopal, Roman Catholic, Universalist, and Evangelical Lutheran.

At 16.5 m., is a junction with State 440.

Left on this road 2.0 m.j is the Porter Bridge School, a one-room county school. (Park car in school yard). South along foot trail to junction with Elk Creek. Left, along trail bordering Elk Creek, is the DEVIL S NOSE, o.j m.

The Devil s Nose, a shale and sandstone formation, is at the convergence of Elk Creek and Brandy Run. The bluff, rising 60 ft. from the creek level, resembles a human nose. The banks of the creeks are popular picnic places.

At /.j- m. on the trail is the DEVIL S BACKBONE, a long shale and sandstone ridge with steep walls rising 200 ft. above creek level. The ridge is fringed at its top with maple, ash, and oak trees. At the SE corner, where Elk Creek cuts through the ridge, the wall dwindles to a height of 50 ft.

EAST SPRINGFIELD (664 alt, 391 pop, borough, inc. 1887) derives its name from the numerous springs in the area. The Nickel Plate R. R, and the Central Greyhound Lines serve the borough.

Capt. Samuel Holliday, of Franklin County, Penna, came to the township in 1796, and settled on 700 acres at the mouth of Crooked Creek. He built a cabin and returned to his former home in the fall. The next year he returned, bringing his bride. Soon after his arrival, he was joined by John Devore, of Bedford County; John Marshon of New Jersey, and William Mclntyre and Patrick Ager, natives of Ireland, all of whom be came permanent settlers. Most of the present inhabitants are Anglo-Saxon, with a scattering of Germans, Slovaks, and Poles.

In 1796 the first potatoes were brought from Pittsburgh by James Mclntyre, who carried them in a sack on his back. Potatoes are still one of the chief agricultural products of the area.

Holliday built the first sawmill in the township in 1801 and a gristmill in 1803, near tne mouth of Crooked Creek. Neither is standing.

There are four churches in the township: the East Springfield Federated Church, Baptist, Methodist, and the Methodist Episcopal.

WEST SPRINGFIELD, 24.7 m., (660 alt., 400 pop., borough) is a residential community, with houses of old farmhouse type, and occasional modern homes. Rows of tall maples line the road.

On the road are many poultry farms. Thousands of White Leghorns are visible from the highway.

At 26.0 m., is the junction with State 5; R. on State 5.

At 31.9 m.j is NORTH SPRINGFIELD, a small community consisting of a school, a store, two churches, and about 30 houses.

At 55.7 m., is a junction with a dirt road.

L. on this road is the mouth of Elk Creek z.j m. This is a favorite spot for bass and grasspike fishing. Many persons camp here during the summer months. Boats are for hire at a store located on the beach at the mouth of the stream.

AVONIA, 40.9 m., is a community of farm homes and commuting cottagers.

The LAKE SHORE GOLF CLUB, 44.3 m., (members only), lies along both sides of the highway. It has an i8-hole golf course.

PORT ERIE AIRPORT, 46.0 m., (R), is a modern air terminal. The airport, covering 140 acres, was constructed in 1936-37 by the Works Progress Administration and by Erie City and County. Scheduled passenger and mail service were inaugurated by the American Airlines, Inc., in June, 1938 (taxi fare from downtown Erie: $1.2$; time, 15 minutes).

Waldameer Park, 48.6 m., (L), is a commercial amusement park.

At 48.8 m., is the beginning of PENINSULA DRIVE, L. (see COUNTY TOUR 1).

COUNTY TOUR 4

Erie Lawrence Park North East Wesleyville Erie, State 5 (East Lake Road), State 150, US 20, 42.1 m.
Roads paved throughout.
Hotels and tourist accommodations in all the route towns.
The highways are wide, curves regular and banked; traffic and directional signs adequate; kept open by continuous snowplow service in winter; hills, curves, and intersections cindered during icy conditions. Pennsylvania Motor Police substation at North East.
Parallels the Nickel Plate and the New York Central R.R. s throughout.

STATE 5, until 1937 State 99, follows an old Indian trail from Presque Isle to Niagara, and parallels the shore of Lake Erie to the New York State line. Crossing the valleys of streams entering Lake Erie, the tour traverses rolling country and continues as New York 5 after crossing the Pennsylvania State line near Ripley, N. Y. US 20, known locally as the Buffalo Road, was surveyed in 1805 and opened over most of its route the same year. The highway parallels Lake Erie at a distance of from one to two miles throughout, following the crest of the first ridge of land above the lake.

E. from State St. on E. izth St.; L. from E. izth St. on Parade St.; R. from Parade St. on E. 6th St. (State 5).

At 4.0 m., is the General Electric Co. Plant (see CITY TOUR 3).

LAWRENCE PARK, 4.6 m., (687 alt.; 3,200 pop. township, inc. 1926) is an industrial suburb of Erie City, and is the newest and only first-class township in Erie County. It was named for Commodore Perry s flagship, the Lawrence.

Freight service is furnished by the New York Central, Nickel Plate, Bessemer & Lake Erie, and Pennsylvania R. R. s. The Greyhound Lines and the West Ridge Bus System and Erie City buses serve the township.

The first extensive development of Lawrence Park began with the coming of the General Electric plant in 1911. The Federal Government erected 400 houses in 1917 for employees engaged in producing wartime supplies. These Government houses, in groups of six to eight, are built of brick and have four to six apartments.

The township s outstanding civic activities are the General Electric Company s Children s Day, held the second Saturday in September; the annual Hallowe en Festival; and the Community Festival, on Christmas Eve.

There are three churches, the St. Mary s Episcopal, Methodist Episcopal, and Christ Lutheran.

At 11.3 m., is the entrance to Shorewood Beach, a popular bathing place (free; no bathhouse).

At 75.7 m., is the junction with an unimproved road.

Left on this is ORCHARD BEACH, 0.3 m., a popular summer resort and bathing beach at the mouth of Sixteen Mile Creek. (Boats and fishing tackle; reasonable rates). Judah Colt, in 1796, maintained a harbor here for unloading supplies from ships to be freighted by ox team to Colt s Station, a pioneer settlement at the headwaters of French Creek.

At the foot of a stiff grade to the level of the lake, the route crosses TWENTY MILE CREEK at 19.3 m. There is a suggestion of the wilder ness in this rugged, tree-covered area. It once was a camping ground for Indians. Game was plentiful and fish easily caught. At the mouth of the stream, during Prohibition, many boatloads of illicit spirits were smuggled into the State.

At 20. i m., is the junction with State 150; R. from State 5 on State 150. At 22.0 m., is the junction with US 20; R. from State 150 on US 20 at State Line.

STATE LINE (alt. 871, pop. 300) is a small village on the NEW YORK-PENNSYLVANIA BOUNDARY. Eastward from State Line the highway passes through a short stretch of level country, paralleled (L) by the New York Central and the Nickel Plate Railroads. Along the roadside are substantial farms with buildings 50 or more years old.

On both sides of the road are acres of grapes, peaches, cherries, and other fruit. During the spring and early summer fruit trees are in blossom, and the foliage of the vineyards creates the illusion of a green sea, with the Lake Erie breeze rippling the surface.

NORTH EAST, 24.6 m., (alt. 805, pop. 3,670, borough, inc. 1834) is the center of the Pennsylvania grape industry. The dwellings, built near the street, are rather old, although there are a few modern cottages of Georgian Colonial architecture. All are neat, well painted, and have large lawns dotted with shrubbery and flower beds.

North East derives its name from its geographical position in the extreme northeast sector of the original 16 townships of Erie County. Be fore 1800 the section was known as Lower Greenfield.

South of North East is a chain of hills with cultivated slopes and wooded summits. A mile and a half north is Lake Erie.

The Greyhound Lines, West Ridge Transportation Co., Martz Bus Lines; also the New York Central and the Nickel Plate Railroads provide interurban transportation facilities.

The first dwelling at North East was a log house built in 1801 by William Dundass, a short distance to the east of the present cemetery on Oa Hill. In 1806 Henry Burgett purchased the Dundass property and con verted the house into a tavern. Two years later Lemuel Brown opened a tavern at what is now Lake and Main Streets, and for several years was a stopping place for stages running between Buffalo and the West.

By degrees a village developed around the taverns. The community was first known as Burgettstown. From 1819 to 1834 it was called Gibsonville. Originally it covered 275 acres. The limits were extended in 1852, and another expansion in 1894 increased the acreage to 540.

The first church in North East was organized by the Presbytery o Ohio in 1801. The borough now has nine churches: Baptist, Emanuel Evangelical, Free Methodist, Holy Cross Episcopal, St. Gregory's Roma Catholic, St. Paul s German Lutheran, St. Peter s English Lutheran, Methodist, and Presbyterian.

The largest manufacturing plant in North East is the Eureka Temperec Copper Company. A major industry is the nationally known Welch Grape Juice Company, with its home office in nearby Westfield, N. Y North East, is, however, predominantly an agricultural district.

The North East Community Fair Association holds a fair and grap carnival for three days each September in the high school building. A flower show and street carnival, sponsored by the American Legion, is held at the same time.

North East is a little town with shaded streets and quiet neighborhoods where the tempo of life is not too swift and where the people have leisur to enjoy the amenities of social intercourse.

ST. MARY S COLLEGE, Lake and Division Sts., is a Catholic educational institution. The college buildings, of red brick and granite, are Victorian and Tudor Gothic in design. The chapel is French Gothic in design, and its interior was decorated by Gonipo Raggi, painter and decorator. The first building of the present group was erected on a 5 -acre tract of land by the Methodist Church in 1869, and was named Lake Shore Seminary. It closed because of financial difficulties. The building stood unoccupied until February 1881, when it was sold to the Redemptorist Fathers and dedicated by the Most Reverend Tobias Mullen The Reverend Joseph Schwarz was the first rector of the college, which also has a preparatory school for youths desiring to enter the Redemptorist Order. It offers four years of high school, accredited, and two year of college courses. When purchased by the Redemptorist Fathers there was but one building, a 3 -story brick structure on a 5-acre plot. Since then the grounds have been enlarged to 101 acres. The college now has an enrollment of 220 students and a faculty of 18.

At 30.6 m. } is the small community of MOORHEADVILLE (pop 195). Several dwellings erected in 1850 and earlier are still standing. Some of the doorways are classic in appearance, with Ionic columns and old green wooden shutters. The houses are built square, many of them of brick. In a few instances, a small square cupola rises above the center peak of the roof. Later day builders have erected small, comfortable cottages. In addition to the fruit and grape industry, many farmers have specialized in poultry raising. Along the highway are flocks of White Leghorn hens, a prolific egg layer; and heavier meat-producing breeds.

At 33.9 m., is the residential village of HARBORCREEK.

WESLEYVILLE, 37.0 m. (731 alt.; 2,840 pop.; borough, inc. 1912) was named for John Wesley, founder of Methodism, by early settlers, followers of his faith.

The borough is served by the Greyhound Lines, the West Ridge Bus System, and the Erie Coach Company.

Wesley ville was laid out in 1828 by John Shadduck, a farmer, who built a gristmill in 1823 and two years later erected a sawmill, both on the banks of Four Mile Creek, which runs through the borough.

First settlers were William Saltsman, Amasa Prindle, and Andrew Elliott, in 1797. They were followed by Hugh McCann and Alexander Brewster in 1800.

Industries are the New York Central Railroad car shops, Nickel Plate Flour Mills, and General Electric Co.

The Wesley Methodist Church was built in 1828 and rebuilt in 1866. Other churches are the Baptist, Messiah Lutheran, Church of the Nazarene, and St. James Roman Catholic.

COUNTY TOUR 5

Erie Wattsburg-Corry-Union City-Edinboro-Wellsburg-Girard-Erie, State 8, US 6, US 6N, State 18, and US 20, 72.0 m.

Highway is paved throughout. Bus lines connect the county towns. The various highways are kept open by snowplow service through the winter months. Patroled by the Pennsylvania Motor Police. Tourist accommodations in all route towns.

STATE 8, also known as the Wattsburg Plank Road, was opened in 1809 from Erie to Wattsburg. In 1851 the Erie & Wattsburg Plank Road Company was organized, and in 1853 the planking was completed. The road was not profitable and was permitted to deteriorate, though toll charges were continued. A group of irate farmers tore down the toll houses in 1865, ending the career of the company.

E. from State St. on E. mh St. R. from E. i2th St. on Parade St. L. from Parade St. on Pine Ave. (State 8).

At 1.6 m., is the crest of the first ridge overlooking the city. There is a fine view of the lake, bay, Presque Isle Peninsula, and the city.

BELLE VALLEY, 3.1 m. (alt. 1,007, PP- 200 )i 1S a group of houses scattered along Mill Creek. Many of the houses are from 50 to 75 years old, and most are of heavy timber frame construction.

The village of HAMMETT, 7.0 m., is a few dwellings scattered along the highway.

The highway follows the valley of the west branch of Elk Creek to the village of LOWVILLE, 16.9 m. (alt. 1,325, pop. 200). The one-story farmhouses, built of wide hemlock planks nailed vertically to hewn framework, are set along the sides of the road in small, neatly kept lawns. The land was cleared in 1 796 by Thomas Smith and the town was named for Samuel Low who located there in 1822 and established a gristmill, a sawmill, and a woolen factory.

The hills tower above the West Branch Valley on the L., and small meadows lie in the curves of the stream. Huge river willows lean over the creeks, and to R., the hills rear above the west side of the valley. At one time these hills were covered with tall, slender hemlock and pine trees. The best of the trees were cut, stripped of bark, and sold to ship builders of New York and Philadelphia to be used as masts. Lesser grade timber was milled into boards and planks, and millions of feet went down French Creek, the Ohio, and the Mississippi to be sold in New Orleans.

Not one tract of the original timber stands today. The hills are now covered with second growth timber.

WATTSBURG, 18.7 m. (alt. 1,340, pop. 256, borough, inc. 1833), is a sleepy borough near a fork of French Creek. Wattsburg was named for David Watts of Carlisle, Pa., father-in-law of William Miles, who laid out the original site in 1828. Miles built a storehouse for furs and as a depot for the surrounding country. A weekly mail route was inaugurated in 1828 between Erie, Pa., and Jamestown, N. Y., by way of the village. The mail was carried by a man who walked the entire distance, approximately 50 miles.

Wattsburg is in the center of a dairying section, and "Wattsburg Butter" is widely known.

The Wattsburg Fair, started about 1885, is held annually and attracts from 25,000 to 40,000 persons. One of the best poultry shows in north western Pennsylvania is held here. The only horse races held in Erie County are run during this fair, with purses amounting to $3,500.

The highway winds slowly upward out of French Creek Valley, to the crest of a high ridge, 22.6 m., from which there is a wide view of hills and valleys. Occasional old apple orchards, noted for their russets, north ern spies, greenings, and Baldwins, border the route.

UNION CITY, 27.2 m. (1,312 alt., 3,788 pop., borough, inc. 1863), is a town of small industry and agriculture on the south branch of French Creek. The borough was originally named Miles Mills for William Miles, who surveyed the section in 1785. The name was changed to Union Mills in 1863, and to Union City in 1871.

The founder of Union City, William Miles, a native of Ireland, came to this country with his parents at the age of eight. In 1800 he came to Union and erected a gristmill and a sawmill. Miles cleared the land, opened roads, secured a mail route, had a post office established, and was the first postmaster. Until 1855 the settlement consisted of a few buildings, adjacent to the Miles mills.

The Philadelphia & Erie Railroad was built through the town in 1858, and the Atlantic & Great Western Railroad, now the Erie Railroad, was laid down in 1862.

The discovery of oil at nearby Titus ville in 1859 gave farther impetus to the town s growth. Oil wells were drilled in Union City the same year, but the field was not productive.

The recent growth of Union City is due to agriculture and to several small manufacturing plants. The region has a climate adapted to raising hardy products, in addition to excellent facilities for dairy farming, an important industry of the region.

The Presbyterians of Union City formed a congregation in 181 1, and in 1831 built a church which was replaced in 1874 by a larger building. The Methodist Episcopal congregation was organized in 1817, and its first church building was erected in 1847. St. Theresa s Roman Catholic Church was organized in 1857. The Baptist Church was founded in 1859, and the United Brethren Society in 1872. Present churches in Union City are the Baptist, Free Methodist, Methodist, Presbyterian, St. Theresas, and the United Brethren.

Union City is served by the Pennsylvania and Erie Railroads. It is also on the route of the Greyhound Lines and the West Ridge Transportation Co.

The Union City Times-Enter prise, a weekly, is the borough s only newspaper.

At Union City is the junction with US 6.

L. from State 8 on US 6.

The STATE FISH HATCHERY 0.5- m. (L), is a breeding place for bullhead, bass, and other fish common to the streams of the area. The buildings are of yellow stucco, and the grounds are landscaped with ever greens and shrubbery.

At 4.9 m., the highway skirts the northern boundary of ELGIN (alt. 1,361, pop. 130). Originally known as Halltown, for Joseph Hall, who operated a sawmill and a gristmill there, the name was changed to Concord Station when the Philadelphia & Erie Railroad was opened. The village was incorporated as a borough in 1876, and given its present name.

CORRY FISH HATCHERY, 9.0 m., (L), is State owned and operated (open 7 to 5 daily). There are hemlocks and maples about the buildings and a fountain near the highway at the entrance. Trout are raised here for stocking streams in Erie and Warren counties.

CORRY, 9.8 m., (alt. 1,427, pop. 7,152, 3rd class city, inc. 1866), was named for Hiram Corry, early landowner. Second in size to Erie in the county, Corry is a busy mercantile and industrial city. Situated on level ground, it has attractive residential sections and a compact business district.

The first settler in Corry was Michael Hare, a soldier in the Revolution ary War, who, in 1795, built a log cabin on the bank of Hare Creek, on a tract of land given to him by the government. The land on which the city stands was originally a swamp. Familiarly known as the City of Stumps and legally as Atlantic and Erie Junction, Corry experienced a brief boom in 1859 with the discovery of oil at nearby Titusville.

In the summer of 1862 an oil refinery, several factories, two hotels, a theatre, a church, and a number of storehouses and residences were erected.

The panic of 1873 checked Corry s advance, and the shifting of oil pro duction to nearby Bradford had further adverse effect.

A public library building, erected in 1917 at North Centre and Franklin Sts., was a gift of the Carnegie Endowment Fund.

The Evening Journal, a daily, is the only newspaper.

Corry is served by the Pennsylvania and the Erie R.R. s. The Greyhound Lines and the West Ridge Transportation Co. also enter the city.

The greater proportion of the citizens of Corry are of Anglo-Saxon origin, descendants of the New England pioneers who were its first setders.

At junction in Union City State 8 and US 6 join; straight ahead on US 6-State 8; at edge of town R. on US 6.

The rolling valley of French Creek is to R. The hills are dotted with small woodlots, pastures, and farms. Small streams meander through shallow ravines and empty into French Creek.

At 32.9 m., is a settlement of five houses and a church. Late in the iSoo s this promised to be a thriving community and was called New Ire land, a name remembered by a few of the older residents of the vicinity.

The highway passes through a dense hardwood forest along the top of a ridge, 34.9 m.

MILL VILLAGE, 35.8 m. (alt. 1,217, PP- 2 33 borough, inc. 1870), was originally named Milltown for three sawmills, a gristmill, and a cheese factory on Mill Run.

Mill Village occupies part of a 2,875 acre tract granted in 1791 by the State to the Society of the United Brethren for Propagating the Gospel among the Heathens commonly known as the Moravians. The Moravians did not settle the land, but sold it in 1850 to James Miles and N. Blickensderfer.

The chief industry of the town is a cheese factory. The countryside is an extensive dairying section.

To L. of the highway and paralleling it, is a double row of river willows, planted by the early settlers to prevent erosion. The great trees add much to the beauty of this section of the highway.

At 57.0 m. US 6 turns L.; straight ahead on US 6N.

The highway gradually ascends the hills overlooking the west side of French Creek Valley.

A panoramic view of Conneautee Lake (Edinboro Lake), some distance to R. of the highway unfolds from the top of a hill, 42.4 m.

EDINBORO, 43.6 m. (alt. 1,500, pop. 789, borough, inc. 1840), is the seat of the Edinboro State Teachers College. The town presents a clean and livable appearance, of white clapboard houses with green shutters. There are no important industries, the State Teachers College providing the chief source of income.

Edinboro was founded by Scotch-Irish colonists from eastern Pennsylvania. It was named by William Culbertson, who divided a portion of his farm into town lots. Culbertson came from Lycoming County in 1796 with his friend, Alexander Hamilton (not the famous Secretary of the Treasury), to look for desirable lands. Here they found an attractive little lake which the Indians called Conneauttee, or Little Conneautee (pronounced by them Kon-ne-yantee), or "the snow place."

Culbertson took up 500 acres of land, embracing virtually all the present borough. In 1801 he built a gristmill, the third in Erie County, on Conneauttee Creek a short distance below the outlet of the lake. A year later he built a sawmill. The sawmill in time passed into new hands and larger mills were built, but eventually the timber became scarce and the mills less active. The ancient gristmill with its old wheel is still standing (R), on Conneautee Creek at the western limits of Edinboro.

Edinboro settlers were mostly from the eastern part of the State, of Scotch-Irish descent or of New England Anglo-Saxon stock. The first school was built of planks in 1815, now destroyed, and was called the "Old Plank School." The building was also used for town meetings.

The Greyhound Lines and the West Ridge Transportation Co. serve the borough.

Edinboro has four churches. The Presbyterian church was organized in 1810; the Methodist Episcopal, in 1829; the Baptist, in 1838; and the Adventist, in 1863.

EDINBORO STATE TEACHERS COLLEGE, Meadville St., a group of 2- and 3 -story red brick buildings set in a broad, tree-shaded lawn, was founded as an academy in 1856. Four buildings were constructed by 1860. In the next year, the State, under the Normal School Act of 1857, authorized the training of teachers, and the name of the school was changed to Edinboro State Normal School. In 1914 the school propern was bought by the State, and in 1926 the present name was adopted.

The four original buildings are still in use. Loveland Hall, an art building, was added in 1930. At present (1938) an auditorium, gymnasium, training school, and power house are under construction. The college normally enrolls 300 students.

At Edinboro is the junction with State 99.

R. on this is Conneauttee Lake, 0.5 m., more commonly known as Edinboro Lake. It is a pleasure and fishing resort. Summer cottages line its shores, and camping grounds are available (information at boathouse).

After leaving Edinboro, the highway enters an almost flat, and fairly fertile farm region. The serrated terrain of eastern Erie County gradually becomes ironed out, and the topography is monotonous with its low hills and shallow valleys. In the iSoo s this area was covered with a heavy hemlock and hardwood forest and sawmills flourished. , There is no virgin timber remaining, and the second growth trees are of little lumber value. The region excells in dairying and agriculture.

WELLSBURG, 53.6 m., (alt. 954, pop. 415), was named for the Wells family and was once a center of industry for the southwestern Erie County area. Near the road, in a small tree-filled park, is the Universalist Church (R), a simple frame building, erected in 1853.

At Wellsburg is the junction of US 6N (see COUNTY TOUR 8) with State 18; R. from US 6N on State 18.

CRANESVILLE, 54.7 m., (alt. 965, pop. 487), was founded in 1800 by Fowler Crane, and named for his father, Elihu Crane, the first settler. A general store operated by Charles Kennedy, a prosperous storekeeper of earlier days, occupies a choice site on the main cross street. This store is one of the few remaining general stores of the past century. Its stock includes everything from a toothbrush to a horse blanket, a keg of nails to a baby s wardrobe.

PLATEA, 57.7 m.y (alt. 955, pop. 249, borough, inc. 1870), was form erly known as Lockport, from the fact that there were 28 locks in the Erie and Pittsburgh Canal within two miles of the town site.

Platea owes its origin to Silas Pratt, who went there in 1840 with a contract for building 28 locks for the canal. Foreseeing the need for a town at this point, he built a general store, a church, hotel, and several dwelling houses. The canal brought a period of prosperity and the town flourished. The borough is largely populated by retired farmers and a few persons who work at a local planing mill.

As early as 1762 the construction of a canal from the Delaware River to Lake Erie had been suggested. An Act of Legislature in 1823 provided for appointment of commissioners to survey a canal route between Lake Erie and French Creek. A convention of delegates from 46 counties met in Harrisburg in August, 1825, and urged the construction of a canal from the Susquehanna River to the Allegheny River, and thence to Lake Erie. The State made an appropriation and began construction.

Two routes were proposed from the Allegheny River to Lake Erie, the one to use the Allegheny River and French Creek, the other the Ohio River and the Beaver and Shenango rivers. The Beaver River route was chosen. The canal was built to follow Lee s Run into Presque Isle Bay on the west side of Erie. In 1832 the State ceded 2,000 acres of land to Erie to be used as a terminus.

On December 5, 1844, two boats from Pittsburgh entered Presque Isle Bay (see TRANSPORTATION).

At 58.9 m., is FARM OF FRANK BARNEY (R). Barney, a life-long resident of Erie County, believed that potatoes could be raised in Erie County on a large scale. Neighboring farmers scoffed at his plans, telling him there could be no profit in such a scheme; that the soil, climate, and cost of production were against him. For many years he experimented with many varieties of potatoes and potatoes from many sources, seeking one that would flourish under local conditions. Several years ago he developed a potato plant of his own and planted a large field. They prospered, and as the years went by, Barney enlarged his fields and improved on the quality of his product. Annually his crop became greater in quantity and better in quality. Today, Barney is known as the "Potato King of Erie County." Thousands of bushels are shipped annually from his acres to the markets of Cleveland, Pittsburgh, and New York.

At 59.9 m. is the junction with US 20; R. from State 18 on US 20 (set COUNTY TOUR 3).

COUNTY TOUR 6

Erie-Kearsarge Waterford-Cambridge Springs-Edinboro-Erie, US 19 and State 99, 55.7 m.

The tour is paved throughout. Winter driving, during periods of ice and snow, is made safe and expeditious by continuous State snowplow service and by spreading cinders at intersections, curves, hills, and other perilous places. Traffic regulations are enforced. Accommodations and meals are available in any of the route towns at reasonable rates.

RISING from the level of Lake Erie at Erie, US 19 reaches successively the various land levels ascending from the lake, and attains the highest altitude in Erie County. The hills are covered with second growth stands of maple, oak, beech, and other hard woods. The valleys are broken up into small farms. From Waterford south the route follows historic LeBoeuf and French Creek Valley.

W. from State St. on W. mh St.; L. from W. nth St. on Peach St. (US 19).

The road climbs a long, steep hill to NICHOLSON HEIGHTS, 3.6 m., named for the family who owned the farmland before its development. Now a residential suburb, it is sparsely built with modern homes. A long row of tall Lombardy poplars line the highway at the top of the hill.

KEARSARGE, 4.6 m., first known as Walnut Creek, is a small community of frame houses and cottages straggling along the highway, its only street. Col. Seth Reed, first settler to locate permanently in Erie, also established a settlement at Kearsarge, 1796, making this village one of the oldest in Erie County.

From Kearsarge the highway traverses gently rolling farm country. Hedges of osage orange planted by early settlers enclose several of the older farmhouses. Aged pine and spruce trees, and old apple orchards are near the farm buildings.

At 13.2 m. is STRONG SCHOOL (R), a typical Erie County rural school. The one-story, one room frame building is painted white, with three windows on each side. A bell tower rears above the shingled roof of "third pitched hip" variety. In the one classroom, common to all grades, seats are so arranged that students sit facing the back of the building and the teacher s table-topped desk. The seats become gradually larger toward the entrance. At the rear of the room is a huge wood-burning stove, and shelves where lunch boxes are placed. A blackboarc covers the entire end of the room behind the teacher s desk.

At 1 6.0 m. is WATERFORD (alt. 1,193, PP- 7 6 9 borough, inc 1833), a rural community noteworthy for its history. It is the site of ok Fort LeBoeuf (see HISTORY).

The streets are wide, and lined with tall maple trees. The homes are rural in aspect, and set decorously in large, grassy lawns. Occasional ok brick dwellings intersperse the rows of small frame houses. The business district adjoins a large public park and consists of a number of 2-story brick structures joined closely together.

Waterford was so named in 1794 when Maj. Andrew Ellicott, under authority of the Pennsylvania State Legislature, surveyed the town. It was the first town to be laid out in Erie County; the second, Erie, was not surveyed until the following year.

Often referred to as the historical center of N. W. Pennsylvania, Waterford s past is unusual and spectacular. Prior to 1749, the French claimed the territory by right of discovery but failed to settle the land. Forma occupation began in 1753 when Sieur Marin, Major Pean, the Chevalier Mercier, and about 500 men, marched by land from Niagara to Presque Isle (Erie). On August 3, 1753, Fort Presque Isle was complete, the portage road to LeBoeuf was ready for use and Fort LeBoeuf was nearly completed. During the autumn of 1753 Commander Sieur Marin died leaving Fort LeBoeuf in charge of Legardeur de St. Pierre who received Washington during his visit there in the winter of 1753.

Washington, in his journal, described the French Fort LeBoeuf as being on the west fork of French Creek, near the water, almost surrounded by the creek and a smaller branch of it. He said: "Four houses comprise the sides; the bastions are poles driven into the ground, are about twelve feet high and sharpened at the top, with ports out for cannon and small arms Eight six pounders were mounted on each bastion, and one four pounder before the gate. In the bastions are a guardhouse, chapel, surgeons lodgings, and the commandant s private store."

Fort LeBoeuf was evacuated by the French in August, 1759, after their defeat in the French and Indian wars and it was garrisoned by the English until 1785.

During the British occupancy, LeBoeuf was raided by Indians June 17, 1763, and the blockhouse burned. The American Fort LeBoeuf built in 1794 consisted of four blockhouses surrounded by pickets, with a 6 pound cannon on the second floor of each building and a swivel gun over each gate.

A memorable incident in the history of Waterford was the visit of the Marquis de LaFayette in 1825. He remained there overnight, June 2, 1825, at the hotel of George W. Reed which stood just east of the Judson Block.

At the close of the Indian wars, many soldiers settled in Waterford, taking advantage of the donation law which provided land for them as bonus from the State in recognition of their military services. Lieut. John Martin, commander of the post, was one. He opened the first tavern.

Amos Judson came from New England the same year and started a feneral store. Robert Brotherton built the first sawmill in 1797 and the rst gristmill in 1802.

The WATERFORD ACADEMY, Walnut and 5th Sts., was incorporated in 1811 and building started in 1822. The school was opened in 1826. It is

2 -story dressed stone building with an unusual arched doorway, pedilent, and graceful cupola. A brick addition was built in 1859, and the structure is still in use as a high school.

The WASHINGTON MONUMENT, in the center of the main street, US 19 id State 97, is a life-sized statue of Washington. The monument was erected in 1922 to commemorate Washington s visit in 1753.

The EAGLE HOTEL, SW cor. First St. and US 19, was built in 1826 by liomas King. A 2-story-and-attic building of gray fieldstone and white :ut-stone trim, the structure is American Georgian in design. Flat arched windows, white cut stone quoins, and an elliptical arched central door way overlook the main highway. Within the hallway is a glass display case showing artifacts excavated from the French and English Forts LeBoeuf . A few clay pipes used by the soldiers, a mass of military buttons of the period, several rusted, broken bayonets, and some decayed Indian blankets comprise the exhibition. Further excavations of the site, south of the hotel, were made by the Frontier Forts and Trails Survey (W.P.A.), who uncovered the old baking ovens, and the foundation walls of the two forts (French and English).

The AMOS JUDSON HOUSE, SE cor. First St. and US 19, is of Connecticut design. It is of the post-Colonial period, built in 1820. The rambling, unpainted, 2-story frame structure has corner Doric pilasters, and within the broad pedimented gable front is a lunette window. The side wing, built for Judson s general store, now occupied by a restaurant-tavern, has quaint dormer windows.

The population of Waterford has varied but slightly during the last 80 years, hovering around the 800 mark. The area is mainly agricultural or dairying country. The raw milk supply of the city comes chiefly from the Waterford area, and the Carnation Milk Company s plant at Cambridge Springs processes Waterford milk to be shipped all over the world. The Pennsylvania R. R., Central Greyhound Bus Lines, and the West Ridge Bus Company serve the community.

The first newspaper was the Waterford Dispatch, begun in 1831. In 1856 it was moved to Erie and became the Erie City Dispatch. The Waterford Museum was launched shortly after the Dispatch was removed to Erie. It became the Inquirer in 1857. The Waterford Leader, a weekly newspaper, is now the only publication in the borough.

The Methodist, Episcopalian, Presbyterian, United Presbyterian, Nazarene, and Roman Catholic denominations have churches in Waterford.

South of Waterford the highway descends a slight grade to the LeBoeuf Creek Valley. At the edge of town is SENTINEL TREE (R), a time- beaten hemlock that legend says George Washington climbed while reconnoitering the French Fort LeBoeuf.

At 13.5 m. is the junction with State 97 (see COUNTY TOUR 7).

LAKE LEBOEUF, 73.7 m. (R), is the site of a small amusement park open in summer with fishing, boating, and swimming. It is noted for muskellunge fishing.

At 20.6 m. is a junction with US 6N; R. from US 19 on US 6N (see COUNTY TOUR 5).

At 34.2 m. in EDINBORO (see COUNTY TOUR 5), is a junction with State 99; R. from US 6N on State 99.

The Conneautee Valley, W. of Edinboro, is rolling. The hills, with their growths of brush interspersed with hardwood stands, are laid out in small farms. Numerous small creeks cross and recross the highway.

McLANE, 37.9 m. (pop. 100), straddles the peak of the range, and sprawls along the highway for about a mile.

Over the crest of the ridge, the community of BRANCHVILLE, 39.9 m., overlooks the headwaters of Elk Creek.

MIDDLEBORO, 42 m. (alt. 1,470, pop. 300, borough, inc. 1861), is a small community of a number of houses, stores, a church, and a schoolhouse. Its postoffice designation is McKean.

McKean has an unusually high altitude for Erie County, its surroundings are hilly with numerous deep ravines along small streams. The valleys are highly productive in grains. Above the valleys the land is heavy clay but fertilizers make it fairly fruitful. Dairying is the chief industry.

The Central Greyhound Bus Lines and the West Ridge Transportation Co. serve the borough.

Churches are Baptist, Methodist, St. Francis Roman Catholic, St. Peter's Lutheran, and Trinity Lutheran.

At 57. / m. is a junction with US 19; L. from State 99 on US 19.

COUNTY TOUR 7

Erie-Wesleyville-Colt s Station-Lowville-Union City-Eric, State 399 (Station Road) State 89, State 8, State 97, 56.1 m.

O TATE 399, Station Road, was laid out in 1813 to provide a road from *J Erie, to Mayville, N. Y., and was named from having become a main route into the village of Colt s Station, which was an important depot for goods shipped down French Creek to the Allegheny River.

S. from i zth St. on State St. L. from State St. on E. 26th St. (US 20). At 6.1 m., in Wesley ville is a junction with State 399. R. from US 20 on State 399.

South of Wesleyville Borough (see COUNTY TOUR 4), the highway passes through a residential district.

The highway turns abruptly east at the outskirts of Wesleyville and crosses Four Mile Creek.

The village of BROOKSIDE is at 6.6 m. This subdivision was built by the smaller wage earners of the General Electric Company, and is composed of one-family dwellings. A modern brick schoolhouse stands L. from the highway, and a frame church houses a small congregation. Fruit trees and small grape vineyards grow in vacant lots and along the roadside. The highway follows an undulating route to cross a wide valley.

GOSPEL HILL, 7.0 m. y is the first elevation above the lake plain and offers a wide view of Lake Erie. To the northwest are the buildings of the General Electric Company, Erie Works. The long arm of the Peninsula, jutting into the blue expanse of Lake Erie, is visible (L). In the valley below are the headwaters of Six Mile Creek.

From the top of Gospel Hill the road curves L. and descends to the valley of Four Mile Creek.

HORNBY, 14.5 m.j is a small group of houses built around a general store and post office. The community was the shopping center of the farm area before improved highways and automobiles gave the farmer easy access to larger towns.

OLD GRANGE HALL, 14.6 m., (L), stands at the crest of a knoll overlooking a small valley. The building was once the social center of the community and the scene of agricultural fairs.

COLT S STATION, 16.6 m., is a crossroads community of a few houses and a general store. This section, Greenfield Township, was one of the first settled in Erie County. Attracted by the beauty of the hills and streams, a number of settlers built homes around the community which became Colt s Station, named for Judah Colt, one of the first settlers. The settlement became important as a supplies depot. Merchandise shipped from Buffalo was landed at Freeport, near the present location of North East, and thence transported to Colt s Station. The village was the head of flat boat navigation on French Creek.

In a small log building Judah Colt conducted first Protestant services in Erie County. The sermon, which became a weekly event after July 2, 1797, drew settlers from the entire township.

At 16.6 m. is a junction with State 89. R. from State 399 on State 89.

The West Branch of French Creek is crossed at 24.5 m., and the road ascends the south side of the valley to LITTLE HOPE, 25.0 m. The com munity consists of a few scattered homes, and a tiny frame church. The settlement was founded in 1798 by Leverett Bissel.

The road wanders over the hills for the next few miles, passing many old farmhouses, with huge barns overshadowing the adjacent buildings. From the top of the hill at 26.7 m. there is a wide view of French Creek Valley, R. French Creek is crossed at Lowville, 30.1 m. (see COUNTY TOUR 5).

UNION CITY is at 32.1 m. (see COUNTY TOUR 5).

At 32.1 ?n. is a junction with State 97. R. from State 89 on State 97.

State 97 was originally the old portage road between Presque Isle (Erie) and LeBoeuf (Waterford), built by the French in 1753 (see HISTORY). It follows the course of a small stream that winds back and forth across the valley, edged with rows of willows. Pastures occupy the level stretches between the curves. The Erie and Pennsylvania railroads follow the south side of the valley.

At 36.2 m. is the crest of the divide overlooking Elk Creek Valley. To the R. is rolling country, the hills wood-covered and torn by the valleys of creeks running into French Creek. On each side of the road are many old farmhouses with huge bank barns. These barns are of early Dutch farm construction.

The early settlers planted willow slips along the streams to protect their land from erosion. Today, as stately trees, their gnarled roots washed naked, they make a graceful screen across the valley. They are more numerous near Waterford.

At 41.2 m. is WATERFORD (see COUNTY TOUR 6).

The terrain for the next few miles is somewhat swampy at the right of the highway. To the L. the hills rise above the valley. Hemlocks grow densely on the hillside and offer haven to pheasant, quail, and many smaller birds.

CAMP KLINGER, 46.8 m. (R) is a camping spot (small fee) on LeBoeuf Creek. Fishing is excellent along the creek, which is stocked with bass every year by the State Game Commission. The hillsides abound in season with blackberries.

The highway rolls over a series of gentle hills out of LeBoeuf Creek Valley. For five miles the road passes farm land and nondescript rural pasturage.

The highway enters Erie on Parade St.

COUNTY TOUR 8

Erie-Fairview-Lavery s Corners- Albion-West Springfield-Erie, US 20, State 98, US 6n, 62.3 m.

STATE 98, improved throughout, traverses Fairview, Franklin, and Elk Creek Townships from Fairview to the Crawford County line, passing through some of the best farmland of Erie County. There is little roadside advertising and no sizable towns on the route. The highway follows the valleys of Elk Creek headwater streams, crossing the main stream near Fairview, and, after passing through Lavery s Corners, enters the valley of Cussewago Creek.

S. from 12th St. on State St., R. from State St. on W. 26th St. (US 20).

At 11.8 m., is a junction with State 98; L. from US 20 on State 98.

At 12.6 m., the crest of a ridge, the road enters a wooded area, crosses Brandy Run, and traverses a short stretch of level country before descending into Elk Creek Valley. Elk Creek is crossed at 14.8 m. The shale formations on both sides of the narrow valley tower 50 to 100 feet above the road.

At 18.5 m. 9 is FRANKLIN CENTER (pop. 100), a crossroads village of a few frame houses and a general store.

The ridge a short distance south of Franklin Center marks the division of the county watersheds. Elk Creek and its smaller tributaries gather water from the north of Franklin Center to drain into Lake Erie. Cussewago Creek, on the south side of the ridge, flows into French Creek at Meadville.

LAVERY S CORNERS, 22.4 m., is the intersection of State 98 with US 6N. This is a particularly dangerous crossing. US 6N is a through traffic highway and cars approaching the intersection on State 98 are confronted by sign after sign, starting 3,000 feet from the crossing, painted in letters two feet high, warning travelers of the crossing, and stating that State 98 traffic must stop.

R. from State 98 on US 6N.

At 26.8 m., is WELLSBURG (see COUNTY TOUR 5).

ALBION, 29.3 m. (alt. 857, pop. 1,681, borough, inc., 1861), is atop a short but rather steep hill. With modern homes and well-kept lawns, the town presents a pleasing appearance.

The borough is served by the Bessemer & Lake Erie Railroad, Pennsylvania Railroad, the Greyhound Lines, and the West Ridge Transportation Co.

Albion derives its name from a poetic name for England. Originally the community was known as "Jackson s Crossroads."

Johnathan Spaulding, who came from New York State in 1795, was the first settler in the area. Two years later the Pennsylvania Population Company sent Col. Dunning McNair as its agent in surveying and selling lands in the district.

Albion s early growth was rapid. It was a freight station and terminal of the Erie-Pittsburgh Canal. Sawmills and flour and feed mills and other small plants prospered. Its later development was influenced by the Bessemer & Lake Erie Railroad, which maintains its northern terminal in the borough. The Bessemer, a subsidiary of the United States Steel Corporation, transports millions of tons of iron ore yearly to the Pittsburgh district steel mills. Most of the ore is shipped to Albion from the lake port at Conneaut, Ohio. Great quantities of ore are stored here every year and hauled to the mills during the winter months; 9,600,000 tons were hauled in 1937. The Bessemer normally employs about 2,000 men in Albion and nearby Cranesville and Conneaut Townships.

Rogers Trailer Works is located there. It employs about 30 men and constructs heavy duty overland hauling units.

Albion has four churches: Methodist Episcopal, Presbyterian, United Brethren, and St. Lawrence Roman Catholic.

The community is served by the Albion Neivs, a weekly newspaper. The Airport Journal, national stamp collector s trade magazine, is edited and published by the News.

The American Legion Labor Day ox roast and picnic is an annual Albion affair. The town is thrown open to the Legion for the day, and thousands of visitors from northwestern Pennsylvania and western Ohio flock to the festival.

At 30.0 m.j the highway passes over the Pennsylvania Railroad.

CONNEAUT CREEK, crossed at 30.2 m., courses through a fertile valley which produces rich crops of hay, wheat, corn, oats, and buck wheat. The creek is deep and wide and affords excellent muskellunge and bass fishing. In March, when the spring rains melt the snow of the valley, the creek often rises to flood stage and deposits a fine silt over the fields, contributing to their fertility.

Conneaut Creek winds through a valley cut and cross-cut by old stream beds. Its course has changed many times, leaving backwaters and dead ponds. Muskrats have found shelter in these small ponds and schoolboys trap these small fur-bearing animals each winter. Mink, skunk, and weasel are also caught and it is not uncommon for amateur trappers to earn several hundred dollars each during the season.

At 36.6 m., in WEST SPRINGFIELD, is a junction with US 20 (see COUNTY TOUR 3); R. from US 6N on US 20.

CHRONOLOGY

C. 1615 French missionaries arrive.

1634 Erie Indians defeat Seneca Indians in poisoned arrow warfare. Hundreds killed or wounded on each side.

1654 Senecas exterminate Erie tribe.

1753 French troops build Fort Presque Isle and Fort LeBoeuf.

December 11-16. George Washington visits Fort LeBoeuf (Waterford).

1758 French settlers abandon village at Presque Isle.

1759 French troops evacuate and burn Fort Presque Isle.

1760 British troops occupy and rebuild Fort Presque Isle.


1763 June 18. Indians capture Fort LeBoeuf. June 20. Indians capture Fort Presque Isle.

1783 Great Britain cedes western district, including Erie County, to U. S.

1784 Treaty with Six Nations gives Triangle lands to Pennsylvania.

1785 General Assembly of Pennsylvania authorizes David Watts and William Miles to survey Tenth Donation District, which included Erie.

1789 General Assembly authorizes payment of $2,000 to Half -Town, Cornplanter, and Big Tree in settlement of claims to part of Triangle lands.

1791 Pennsylvania pays Seneca Indians $800 to quit Triangle lands.

U. S. Government sells Triangle lands to Pennsylvania, after considerable litigation.

1792 General Assembly enacts bill to lay out towns at Presque Isle and LeBoeuf.

1794 Andrew Ellicott surveys and lays out town of Waterford.

1795 Treaty of peace with Six Nations at Canandaigua, N. Y., removes remaining obstacles to settlement of Presque Isle.

Andrew Ellicott and William Irvine lay out town of Erie. Thomas Rees and John Grubb, with their families, settle in Erie. Colonel Seth Reed erects first dwelling in Erie. Louis Philippe, afterward King of France, visits Erie.

1796 December 15. Gen. Anthony Wayne dies and is buried in Erie.

1798 Sloop Washington, first sailing vessel built in Erie, launched at the mouth of Four Mile Creek.

1800 March 12. Erie County established by Act of General Assembly. First county census taken; population 1,468. First public school built at Waterford. Salt industry established.

1801 First mail route opened between Erie and Pittsburgh, by way of Waterford and Meadville.

1803 First county officers elected. First court held in Erie County, the Hon. Jesse Moore, presiding. Opening of court announced by blowing of horn, a custom followed until 1823.

1805 Erie incorporated as borough.

1808 The Mirror, first newspaper in Erie County, started by George Wyeth.

Gen. Anthony Wayne s body disinterred and removed.

1813 March 27. Perry arrives in Erie to build fleet. Sept. 10. Battle of Lake Erie. Perry captures British fleet.

1818 First U. S. lighthouse on Great Lakes built on Presque Isle. May 28. Walk-in-the-Water, first steamship to sail on Great Lakes, launched at Erie.

1825 June 3. Marquis de LaFayette visits Erie.

1826 May 18. The steamboat William Penn, 200 tons, of the Erie & Chautauqua Steamship Company, launched at Erie.

1830 First major influx of German population.

1831 Horace Greeley works as printer on the Erie Gazette.

1832 Girard Township incorporated.

1833 Waterford incorporated as borough.

1834 North East incorporated as borough.
Wattsburg incorporated as borough.

1836 Proposed canal connecting Erie with Pittsburgh quadruples price of real estate within few weeks. Sales in February exceed $1,000,000.

1839 Building constructed for Erie branch of United States Bank; used later as customs house.

1841 August 9. The steamship Erie burns near Silver Creek, N. Y.; 249 persons drowned; 26 of whom were from Erie; and $180,000 in gold and silver lost.

1843 November 9. U.S.S. Michigan (Wolverine) launched on Lake Erie.

1844 December 5. Queen of the West and R. S. Reed, first boats to enter Erie on new Erie & Pittsburgh Canal, dock at foot of Sassafras St.

1846 Girard incorporated as borough.

1847 First telegraph line opened in Erie County.

1851 Erie incorporated as city.

1852 January 19. First passenger train enters Erie, on 6-foot gauge tracks of the Erie & North East Railroad.

1854 Railroad War. Popular resentment against standardizing the gauge results in a riot.

1855 Police department organized in Erie. West wing of county courthouse completed.

1858 City divided into four wards.

1861 Albion incorporated as borough. Abraham Lincoln visits Erie.

1863 October 22. First newspaper in Corry, the Corry City News, established.

1866 South Erie incorporated as borough. Gen. U. S. Grant and Andrew Johnson visit Erie.

1870 South Erie Borough annexed to Erie City.

1871 Erie Canal to Pittsburgh abandoned.

1874 St. Vincent s Hospital dedicated.

1876 Perry s original flagship, Lawrence, raised from Presque Isle Bay and rebuilt. First telephone exchange opened.

1878 First labor union, Typographical Union, receives charter.

1880 Wayne Blockhouse rebuilt.

1881 July i. Hamot Hospital dedicated.

1891 W. L. Scott, Erie industrial magnate and philanthropist, dies. Grover Cleveland attends funeral.

1896 Public Library built.

1898 Hammermill Paper Company founded. May 1. Capt. Charles Vernon Gridley of Erie fires first shot in Battle of Manila Bay.

1910 March 18. President William H. Taft arrives in Erie and speaks for Y.M.C.A.

1911 General Electric Company builds branch in Erie. May 17. St. Peter s Cathedral consecrated.

1914 Erie Forge & Steel Company founded.

1915 August 3. Mill Creek flood causes 25 deaths and large property loss.

1916 Erie National guardsmen take part in war on Mexican border.

1918 July 14. Erie troops participate in Battle of Marne in France.

1920 Academy High School constructed.

1921 Presque Isle made a State Park. East High School finished.

1926 Mercy hurst College constructed.

1931 Buses replace trolley cars on streets. Church of the Covenant built. Strong Vincent High School constructed.

1936 President Franklin D. Roosevelt speaks at mass meeting.

1938 Erie Municipal airport opened, and mail and passenger service inaugurated.

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