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History of New England Fisheries
Federal Writers Project 1911

With the exception of taking an active part in the naval history of the Civil War, the fisherman of New England appears to have played an unimportant role in the national movements of this half-century. Neither the rich valley of the Mississippi nor the gold of California attracted him from his nets and boats. His was the oldest industry of the land one not to be exchanged easily for any of the alluring vocations that were opening daily in the new West. But if he was unwilling to participate actively in the new movements going on about him there was no escape, and no desire for escape, from the influences that enhanced his own calling. With increased facilities for transportation came the expansion of the Baltimore oyster industry beyond the Alleghenies. The opening of the Erie canal was the signal for the entrance into the Mississippi Valley of the best quality of Gloucester codfish, which formerly had been exported to Bilboa. The settlement of the shores of the Great Lakes led to the development of an inland fishery that was worth a quarter of a million dollars per annum within a decade of its establishment.

Within the sphere of his own industry the fisherman never was more active than during this period. The ancient calling of codfishing was pursued with greater zeal and wider area. The mackerel fishery rose within a few years from an insignificant calling to become a formidable rival of the codfishery. The oyster industry increased with each year until it became an active occupation for thousands of people along the gulfs and bays of the Atlantic. Menhaden and shad were taken by the million from the Carolinas to Eastport, while the new employment of taking and curing the herring of the Magdalen Islands and of the Passamaquodd}' region laid the foundation for scores of fortunes.

On the other hand, there were years of losses as well as years of prosperity in the fisheries, that is one of the characteristics of the fishery industry, especially of the cod and mackerel fisheries which necessitate a considerable outlay of capital for establishing and maintaining them. An unfavorable season for catching fish might be partially offset another season by securing large gains, either from a large catch or from higher prices. But the loss of men and vessels at sea never could be remedied. International trouble also continued. New complications arose with the enforcement of the provisions of the Convention of 1818. The maritime provinces of Great Britain were insistent in interpreting the new provisions always from their point of view. The result was repeated quarrels, frequent seizures of American fishing vessels, and curtailment of privileges, if not of rights. After a trial of thirty-six years, stormy and unsatisfactory to both sides, the terms of the Convention of 1818 gave place to the Reciprocity Treaty of 1854, which was destined to last only one-third as long as its predecessor before it was discarded with no more ceremony than its own provisions necessitated.

The year 1819 was of importance in the history of the fisheries not only because it was the first in which the provisions of the Convention of 1818 went into effect but also because it was marked by the passage by Congress of a law that fixed the "bounty," or allowance to vessels employed in the fisheries, at a higher rate than had previously existed. The act, which continued in operation for forty-seven years, provided for bounties to the owners of fishing vessels employed at sea four calendar months exclusively in the codfishery under the following regulations.

Compensation to fishermen for their service must be by division of fish, or share in the proceeds of the sale of the fish; no person except the cook could receive wages. The master and three-fourths of the crew must be citizens of the United States. Fishing vessels had to be examined by an inspector as to their sea-worthiness, their equipment, and the number and nationality of the crew before sailing on a voyage on which allowances were to be paid. A regular log-book had to be kept on board day by day, setting forth the principal events of the voyage, which later was submitted to the collector of the home port. Arrivals and departures had to be recorded by the master or owner with the proper officers, but the required time of four months at sea did not have to be in continuous voyages. Vessels could engage in the mackerel or other fishery in their season if the masters so wished; these voyages, however, had to be distinct from the codfishery voyages. Allowances were paid as follows, according to the size of the vessels : If measuring more than five tons, and not exceeding thirty tons, three and one-half dollars per ton. If measuring more than thirty tons, four dollars per ton. If measuring more than thirty tons, with crew of not less than ten persons, and having been employed at sea exclusively in the codfishery three and one-half calendar months, three and one-half dollars per ton.

The allowance to one vessel during the season, regardless of her tonnage, should not exceed three hundred and sixty dollars. Numerous attempts were made to have the act repealed, but none was successful until July, 1866. Since that date no allowances have been granted to vessels engaged in the fisheries. The subject of the fisheries came up before Congress in 1852 during the discussions that preceded the ratification of the Reciprocity Treaty of 1854. At the time it was shown by those who were friendly towards the fishing interests that there was need of bounties in supporting the industry not only for its own sake but also because this was the best means for supplying the navy and merchant marine of the nation with capable men and officers. In a series of speeches made before the House of Representatives the Hon. Zeno Scudder, congressman from Massachusetts stated, "the law of 1819 has continued to this time, and under its protection there has been a gradual increase in the business. It has, however, been smaller in comparison with that of other departments of commerce ; showing that with all the aid which the government has rendered, it is still too poor in its returns to be followed to a great extent." Opposition to the granting of yearly allowances to the fisheries was speedily quelled when it was shown by the speaker that there were more than twenty thousand fishermen in New England whose principal income was only $76.89 per annum.2 As five-eighths of the annual allowance went to the crew of the vessel and only the remaining three-eighths to the owners of the vessel, it is readily seen that the law was intended primarily, and continued throughout its operation, for the benefit of individual rather than corporate interests; it needed but little argument by the representative from Massachusetts to show "that the prime, medium, and final object of this series of statutes was, and is, the cultivation of seamen by the encouragement of a business which, in itself, was, and is, too poor to be sustained.

The amount of allowances paid fishing vessels under the act of 1819 for the forty years between the first of January, 1820 and the thirtieth of June, 1859, was $10,626,201.13, which gives an average of $265,655 per annum. The highest amount paid in one year was in 1857, when the allowances reached $464,178.

1 The amount of allowances granted to fishing vessels under the several acts before 1820 was $2,328,517.68, and the estimated amount granted from June 30th, 1859 to the repeal of the Act of 1819 in 1866 was $2,500,000. The total amount of allowances granted from the enactment of the first act in 1792 to the repeal of the last act in 1866 was between fourteen and fifteen million dollars.

2 During the period from 1818 to 1866, duties upon fish imported into the country were levied by several tariff acts. By the Act of 1816, duties were levied on foreign caught fish at one dollar per quintal, on mackerel at one and onehalf dollars per barrel, on salmon at two dollars per barrel, and on all other pickled fish at one dollar per barrel. The Act of 1842 continued these duties with additional rates of twenty per cent ad valorem on sardines and other fish preserved in oil; but fresh caught fish, brought in for daily consumption were exempt from duty. By the Act of 1846 a forty per cent ad valorem duty was placed on anchovies, sardines and all other fish preserved in oil, and a twenty per cent ad valorem duty on foreign fish, whether fresh, smoked, salted, dried or pickled, not otherwise provided for.

Maine $ 4,175,050
New Hampshire 563,134
Massachusetts 7,926,273
Rhode Island 182,853
New York 78,890
Virginia 479
Total $12,944,998

The duty on salt, which formed the basis of the bounty, has been in the several tariffs as follows : for 1824, twenty cents per bushel of 56 pounds ; that of 1828, the same ; that of 1832, ten cents per bushel ; that of 1842, eight cents per bushel ; that of 1846, twenty per cent ad valorem.2 The change of the schedule of 1846 to a twenty per cent ad valorem scale on salt and fish was of undoubted advantage to the foreign importer, but the effect was depressing upon American fishermen. The French fishermen and those of the British provinces were brought immediately into more active competition with ours. They possessed the advantage of proximity to the great fishing grounds, the French government paid its fishermen a bounty of about one and one-half dollars per quintal for the fish they caught, the price of labor was cheaper with both classes of people than in the United States, the act of 1846 was favorable to the importation of their fish into this country, consequently they became formidable rivals of our fishermen in our own markets. The imports of foreign fish increased at a rate that filled New England fishermen with the gravest fears for their industry. Their apprehension was well founded, for under the tariff of 1846 the quantity of codfish and mackerel imported into the country increased to several times the amount imported previous to its passage. During the four fiscal years ending June 30, 1846, previous to the introduction of the new schedule of duties the imports of dried fish were 1,358 quintals, valued at $10,120; the imports of pickled fish were 74,634 barrels, valued at $561,593. For the four years from 1847 to 1850 the same items of import were : 42,332 quintals of dried fish, valued at $88,781, and 204,358 barrels of pickled fish, valued at above $1,- 000,000.!

The estimated amount of duty collected on imports of fish into the United States from the British North American possessions from 1850 to 1855 was $884,974.20, which represented a market value of more than $4,400,000 worth of fish.

Our fishermen became thoroughly aroused at the state of affairs, measures for remedying this condition of the fisheries were advocated, and the general discussion of the question that followed was one of the principal causes of the Reciprocity treaty of 1854.

The course of trade of the dried, smoked and pickled fish exported during this period shows an increasing proportion being sent to the "West Indies and a falling off in exports to European countries until the latter amounted to almost nothing. The total exports of dried and smoked fish for the year 1821 were 254,947 quintals. The West Indies took 214,018 quintals, or 84 per cent of the total exports. In 1825 they took 251,034 quintals, or 88 per cent of the total exports; and in 1832 the amount was 233,247 quintals, which was 96 per cent of this kind of fish exported from the country. The export trade to Europe diminished from 21,184 quintals in 1821 to 3,042 quintals in 1825 ; in 1832 the quantity of exports had fallen to only 430 quintals, while the following year there were no exports to Europe.

The quantity of dried fish sent to the West Indies during the years 1821, 1825 and 1832 averages nearly the same as was sent there in 1800, which was 244,352 quintals. The average annual exports of this kind of fish for the thirtythree years from 1819 to 1851 were 242,697 quintals, valued at $673,723 annually. This amount is slightly below the average for the period of 1783 to 1818. The tonnage employed in the fisheries during the latter period was about double that of the former, and the natural inference would be that exports should show a corresponding increase. As a matter of fact, European exports fell off until they need hardly be considered. Our exports to the British West Indies were suspended after the opening of the war of 1812, and when peaceful relations were resumed this trade was not recovered by the New England shippers, a trade which in 1800 amounted to 141,000 quintals of dried fish. The loss of the trade with the British West Indies was due to the successful competition of the fishermen of the British North American provinces. The value of the cod and mackerel fisheries of New England was in excess of former periods by a wide margin; the loss of trade with Europe and the absence of an increase of exports to the West Indies do not indicate, necessarily, that our fisheries were in a low state or that the decline of export trade was a calamity to the industry. The explanation is found in the increasing demand for American fish in our own markets, the demand at home being for the best quality of cured fish. A writer of the times describes the change that took place in the course of our export trade as follows: "Of late years (between 1830 and 1840) an entire change of markets for the products of the fishery, so far as it respects the large sized fish, has taken place. Since the opening of the Erie Canal and the increase of population and business consequent thereupon, an increasing demand for this article has grown up in that quarter; so that the New York and Albany markets, which previously required only a few thousand quintals for their annual supply, now afford a demand for nearly 150,000 quintals. The foreign export has diminished in a ratio proportionate to the increase of the domestic demand.

The total amount of exports of pickled fish from 1819 to 1851 was 1,830,353 barrels and 139,557 kegs. The aggregate value of these exports for the years named was $7,289,- 783, an annual average of $220,902. The average annual value of exports of dried, smoked and pickled fish during the same period was $894,624, and the aggregate value of all kinds of fish exported for that period reached a total of $29,522,628.

A comparison of these figures with the total value of our exports of fish for the thirty years preceding 1819 shows a falling off of about fifty per cent from the earlier totals, a decline that was due, as indicated above, to an increased demand for fish in our domestic markets. The amount and value of the fish used for the home consumption can not be given for any number of years with accuracy. The statistics for the year 1840 afford a basis for a close estimate of fish products consumed at home. In that year the fisheries of the country produced 773,947 quintals of dried and smoked fish, and 472,360 barrels of pickled fish.

Of the exports, the 211,425 quintals of dried fish sold at $2.55 per quintal, and the 43,400 barrels of pickled fish sold at $4.12 per barrel.* Estimated at the same prices, the total value of the fisheries for 1840 was $3,915,786, made up of $1,973,565 worth of dried fish and $1,942,221 worth of pickled fish. The value of fish used for domestic consumption, according to this estimate, was $3,201,543, made up of $1,434,431 worth of dried fish and $1,767,112 worth of pickled fish. The tonnage engaged in the codfishery and the amount of exports for 1840 were each nine per cent less than the average for this period of years; so that it is not an unsafe estimate to place the annual value of the fisheries between 1819 and 1851 near $4,000,000, with the home consumption considerably above $3,000,000 worth of fish.

The cod retained the distinction of being the principal food fish of the American seas down to the period of the Civil War. While there were years of depression in the codfishery from 1818 to 1866, the period as a whole was one of general prosperity and substantial gain in all phases of the industry. A survey of the Massachusetts towns engaged in the codfishery reveals, at first glance, a marked depression in this fishery; but where the tonnage of the State falls off in the codfishery it can generally be found to crop out again in some other new form of deep-sea enterprise, particularly in the mackerel fishery. For example, in 1851 the codfishery of Maine was above the 45,000 tonnage mark, more than 5,000 tons ahead of the Massachusetts codfishery tonnage. But, on the other hand, Massachusetts had about 40,000 tons employed in the mackerel fishery, the tonnage for the two industries being almost alike for that year, while the mackerel tonnage of Maine was below 10,000 tons.

The amount of tonnage employed in the codfishery of New England during the period of forty-eight years from 1818 to 1866 reached an annual average double the tonnage employed during the first twenty-nine years of our Federal existence. The average tonnage for the period, and for different terms of years, are shown in the following table :

From 1819 to 1829, eleven years, 68,700 tons.

1830 to 1839, ten 65,100

1840 to 1849, 68,200

1850 to 1859, ...101,300

1860 to 1866,.. .95,454

From 1819 to 1866, forty-eight years, 79,200 tons. In 1829 the tonnage was above 100,000 tons, the only time during the period previous to the year 1852. From the latter year to 1864 the annual amount employed in the codfishery was above 100,000 tons, except in 1856. The average annual tonnage employed from 1852 to 1864 the most prosperous years of the period was 112,700 tons. The highest tonnage employed was 136,654 tons in I860. Between 1850 and 1860 there were employed annually in the codfishery an average of 2,084 vessels, of about fifty tons each, carrying 14,570 men in the crew, or an average of seven men for each vessel.

At the period of its greatest prosperity the year 1859 the codfishery of the country was carried on in 2,593 vessels, of a total tonnage of 129,637 tons, carrying crews that aggregated 18,151 men. The status of the fishery in the several states is given in the table on the following page. The State of Maine led all others in the extent of the fishery; in fact, the codfishery of Maine was about equal to the combined fishery of the other states. The codfishery of Massachusetts, too, was so important that the industry of the country may be said to have been embraced in these two states.

Turning now to the mackerel fishery we find that its development was immediate and very rapid after the treaty of 1818 went into operation. The catch of mackerel of the country was unimportant previous to 1819. For fifteen years preceding 1819, the total recorded catch of mackerel by the fishermen of Maine was 6,553 barrels ; of Massachusetts, 231,085 barrels. The catch for Maine in the year 1819 was 5,322 barrels, and for Massachusetts, 100,111 barrels. From 1819 there was an almost unbroken line of development in the mackerel industry to the year of greatest prosperity, 1831, when 450,000 barrels of mackerel were salted in Maine, New Hampshire and Massachusetts. Of this amount, the fishermen of Massachusetts laid claim to 383,549 barrels, valued at $1,589,936. The catch of mackerel for 1831 is all the more remarkable when it is remembered that the fish were caught by hook and line, each fish being pulled in individually, where to-day by the use of the purse-seine several hundred barrels may be taken at a single haul.

For the decade following 1831 there was a sharp decline in the fishery until the low water mark was reached in 1840, when only 50,492 barrels were taken in Massachusetts.

THE STATUS OF THE CODFISHERY OF THE COUNTRY IN 1859. STATE.

The rise of the industry was generally steady from 1840 to 1851, after which there was a period of decline for eight years, except in the year 1855.1 During the last three years of the Civil War there was a slight falling off in the catch of mackerel as compared with that of the early sixties, probably due to the lack of men to engage in the business, as many fishermen had enlisted for service in the war. But the value of the fishery was greatest during these years. The total value of the mackerel of the country for the three years 1864, 1865, and 1866 was $17,893,211. In these three years mackerel of the first quality sold in Massachusetts at from $22 to $30 a barrel. The cause of high prices appears to have been due to a steady demand for the fish; when the markets became empty of mackerel the price of the fish advanced. The most profitable year was in 1864 when the country's catch of 324,455 barrels of mackerel was valued at $7,001,098.

2 Nearly one-half of this total went to the fishermen from the town of Gloucester. The mackerel was king of the sea in war times. During this period more than four-fifths of the mackerel industry was carried on by citizens of Massachusetts. From 1819 to 1866 the total product of the business in Massachusetts was 9,073,510 barrels of pickled mackerel, valued at $61,815,907, an average value of $8.60 a barrel. The average yearly product was 189,239 barrels, worth $1,671,240. The Maine catch of mackerel was less certain. During eleven odd years between 1820 and 1866 there was a total catch of 336,153 barrels; in 1865, the catch was 54,216 barrels. In New Hampshire the business was small, from 183*0 to 1852 the total pack of salted mackerel being 153,370 barrels. During the Civil War the New Hampshire mackerel fishery was practically suspended, as only 722 barrels were packed from 1861 to 1866. It would appear from the statistics of the fishery industry of New England from 1818 to 1866 that there was an average annual catch of 225,000 barrels of mackerel by our fishermen, valued at $1,935,000 annually.

Between 1850 and 1860 there were annually employed in the mackerel fishery of New England 662 vessels, carrying 5,252 men in the crews. The average size of each vessel was 65 tons; of the crew, eight men.2 Accounts of the extent and value of the New England fisheries for the year 1851 show that the number of vessels employed in the cod and mackerel fisheries was 2,691, valued at $12,000,000, including their outfits. The tonnage of the vessels engaged in the codfishery was 95,617 tons, in the mackerel fishery, 50,539 tons. The average codtonnage for the ten years previous to 1851 was 79,251 tons; nine quintals of codfish were taken per ton, worth $2.60 a quintal. There were 11,321 men in the codfishery for the ten years.

The status of the cod and mackerel fisheries of New England for the year 1859 is given on the following page, which shows the vessels, men and tonnage in the fisheries belonging to each State. Outside of the New England states, the deep-sea fisheries were unimportant and need not be considered in making the totals for the country's fisheries.

The value of the products of the New England deep-sea fisheries for the year 1859 may be estimated conservatively at $1,650,000 from the mackerel fishery and $3,025,000 from the codfishery, a total of $4,675,000 from both industries. Whether considered during periods of "lean" years, or when the prosperity of the fisheries is at its flood, the fisherman's share of the catch seems inadequate not only as an incentive for him to continue in the fishing business but also to support him and his family. How can they live on so small an income? The share of the cod fisherman for the decade between 1840 and 1850 was $62.31 a year on an average ; his part of the government allowance was $14.58 more, making his total income from the codfishery $76.89. The income seems incredibly low, but it is a larger share than the mackerel fishermen received from the sea. For the five years previous to 1851, according to Congressman Scudder of Massachusetts, the 8,879 fishermen who were engaged in the mackerel fishery received an annual income of $64.04 derived from the sea.1 The fishermen themselves might manage to live very well on the scanty income because food and shelter were provided him when at sea and there was no opportunity, or need, of his spending money when aboard the vessel. His expenses for clothing, boots, oil-clothes and tobacco were not large. At the close of the fishing season he usually found employment ashore along the water-front or in curing the codfish preparatory for the markets. In addition, it should be remembered that often the members of his family were engaged in some gainful occupation. Previous to the Civil War and before the invention of machinery for the manufacture of nets hundreds of women and girls were employed in their own homes in making nets for fishermen of their own household, or for others. In general, however, women were not employed in curing the codfish on shore as they were in the early history of the industry, or as they are in Newfoundland to-day.

THE GROWTH ALONG THE COAST

A geographical review of the New England fisheries from 1818 to 1866 covers a wider range than has been considered previously, due in part to the extension of the fisheries into places already established, in part to the opening of new territory and the consequent development of the natural resources of those regions. In many places the records are few, leaving some doubt as to whether the fishing .industry of a particular place was spasmodically pursued in connection with another industry, or whether only unusual cases of prosperous seasons raise the industry for a time to a place of importance great enough to receive mention in local records and newspapers. In the case of many towns where the fisheries were carried on extensively for a number of years the accounts of the industry are so scattering that an attempt to place them in a connected narrative would be a hopeless task.

The fisheries of Maine and Massachusetts receive greater consideration than other New England states. The fishing interests of Connecticut and Rhode Island were largely inshore. However, the whale fishery was carried on with considerable vigor from New London. The town early became interested in the fur-seal and sea-elephant fisheries in Antarctic waters. Vessels from here were the first American sealers to visit Desolation Island and Heard 's Island in the South Indian Ocean, and large cargoes of sea-elephant oil were obtained annually from these islands for many years. The sealing fleet of New London in 1853 numbered eight sail. In 1858 it had increased to twelve sail, and for a score of years following it numbered annually from five to ten vessels.

It has already been noted how the fisheries of Maine assumed considerable importance before the second war with Great Britain. In 1820, Maine was admitted as a State into the Union, and was soon rising into a place of importance on account of the fisheries carried on by her citizens. She shortly outrivaled her mother state, Massachusetts, in the codfishery, and during this period was second to the Bay State in the mackerel fishery, as well as second in the Union in the extent of fisheries. From Eastport to Portland there was scarcely a place to be found, whether a village or a hamlet, on the coast itself or on the innumerable islands adjacent to the shore, where fishing industries were not pursued previous to the Civil War. A history of Maine fisheries is to be found very largely in a review of the local industries of her seaport towns for this period.

As early as 1820 the merchants of Eastport were extensively interested in the mackerel fishery. By 1830 the industry was at its height, there being fully forty vessels, of sixty to seventy tons, that fitted out at Eastport and sold the products of their catch there. These vessels carried a total of six hundred men and had an average catch varying from seven hundred to one thousand barrels of mackerel a season. The fishermen used to be engaged in the codfishery on the outer banks, or in the Bay of Fundy, before the summer mackerel season began. Several vessels fitted for the codfishery on the coast of Labrador by 1820, but the industry declined after 1830 and was wholly neglected after 1855. The Magdalen herring fishery began at Eastport by 1830, and continued to thrive until 1868. The town of Eastport claims the honor of having put up the first can of sealed goods of any kind within the limits of our country. The business began in 1843" with the canning of lobsters for market, an industry that has since risen to the rank of the highest importance in the State. In 1850 there were seven firms at Eastport engaged in the fish trade. These firms employed 238 men; used 18,900 bushels of salt; cured 18,000 quintals of fish and 3,500 boxes of smoked herring; put up 12,000 barrels of pickled herring, 300 barrels of mackerel, and 3,503 barrels of other fish, ... in addition to 450 barrels of oil and a quantity of canned goods, the whole having a value of $85,000.

The neighboring town of Lubec rivaled Eastport in the business of catching and smoking herring. By 1821, there were twenty smoke-houses in the place, each house having an annual output of from 2,500 to 3,000 boxes of herring. As early as 1830 the merchants of Lubec were sending vessels to the Magdalen Islands for additional herring to smoke and pickle. This herring fleet consisted of eleven vessels in 1860, each returning with cargoes of 700 to 800 barrels of fish. The smoked herring business was at its height between 1845 and 1865, there being from 400,000 to 500,000 boxes of herring smoked and packed annually. Millbridge, located about midway between Machias Bay and Frenchman's Bay, became interested in the herring fishery in 1820. The business increased slowly until 1850, when people from Lubec built smoke-houses and presses for utilizing the catch of fish. The most prosperous period of the industry was between 1858 and 1863 when 75,000 to 100,000 boxes of herring were packed yearly. Lubec fishermen also visited Steuben, adjacent to Millbridge on the west, about the year 1850 to secure herring for smoking, and the business thrived at about the same time as for Millbridge, declining during the period of the war.

The towns bordering on the Frenchman's Bay district, which extends from Gouldsboro on the east as far west as Blue Hill, became engaged with varying success in different kinds of fishing enterprises. As early as 1810, settlers came to Gouldsboro to engage in the whole fishery, carrying it on from the shore to a limited extent. A large fleet of small vessels was employed in the codfishery for several years in the Bay of Fundy. With the decline of the business, the fishermen turned their attention to the hake fishery in Frenchman's Bay, which assumed a place of considerable importance after 1840. In some seasons as many as one hundred vessels from other parts of New England resorted to Frenchman's Bay for hake, which found a market in Portland and Boston. This industry, also, declined during the war.

Before the hake industry had begun to decline another branch of fishing was rising to take its place. For several years in the early part of the period in which hake fishing was carried on so exclusively, menhaden were caught for bait. In 1850 a Blue Hill woman discovered that marketable oil could be obtained from menhaden, and the business of catching the fish for their oil increased enormously in the Frenchman's Bay region. The best years for this industry appear to have been 1863, 1864, and 1865, although the business was continued with decreasing returns into the early part of the next decade. When the industry was at its height it is estimated that not less than one hundred try-houses, with two to four kettles each, were in operation between Lamoine and Gouldsboro. The yearly product of these houses has been estimated at fifty casks of oil, each holding forty gallons, worth a dollar per gallon, a total of $200,000 a year for the farmer-fishermen of Frenchman's Bay when the business was most prosperous.

The towns of Lamoine and Hancock were leaders in the fisheries of Frenchman's Bay. The people of Hancock became interested in the fisheries of the Bay of Fundy in 1845. In 1852 vessels were sent to the Western Bank for cod, and eight years later marked the beginning of sending vessels to the Grand Bank of Newfoundland, and others to the Magdalen Islands for herring. When the business of smoking herring was at its height in Hancock, from 30,000 to 40,000 boxes were packed yearly for the market at Boston and the West Indies.

About 1835 the people of Lamoine began sending pinkies of thirty or forty tons to fish for cod in the Bay of Fundy, and in 1848 the fleet numbered about twenty-five sail with six or eight men each. The fishery began to decline in 1850; the smaller boats were sold in other ports, and the larger vessels were fitted out for trips to the Grand Bank. This fishery, which began in 1857, was prosecuted from Lamoine with success for several years. When the menhaden business began to be profitable the farmers of the town left their fields to engage in the industry. There were scores of them who bought nets, boats and kettles and set up in business for themselves on the shores of the Bay. Along with the other fishery industries, that of smoking herring was extensively carried on in the place. The first schooner was sent to the Magdalen Islands for an additional supply of herring for smoking in 1855. The annual output of this industry averaged between 30,000 and 40,000 boxes ; in 1865 or 1866 the number reached 125,- 000 boxes.

About 1825 Castine became a center for fitting out fishing vessels. Salt was imported direct from Cadiz and Liverpool to supply the demands of fishermen of Central and Eastern Maine. By 1850 five hundred vessels were fitted out annually at Castine. The fisheries of Deer Isle were carried on in small boats until 1830 when twelve large vessels were sent to offshore banks for cod ; forty smaller ones fished inshore at the time. In ten years the number of vessels had increased to thirty and the boats to fifty. The height of the fishing business for the island was during the years of the Civil War. The larger schooners, to the number of thirty-five, were engaged almost exclusively in the mackerel fishery, during its season, in the Gulf of Saint Lawrence. After the close of the fishing season many of them were employed in the coasting trade between Boston or New York and the coast towns of Maine until the fishing season opened the following summer.

As early as 1825 there were forty boats engaged in the shore fisheries of the Isle au Haut. Some were engaged in the herring fishery ; later vessels were sent to the Magdalen Islands for the fish. Bucksport, on the Penobscot River, had vessels engaged in offshore codfishery by 1825. The business increased steadily until there were twenty vessels of from fifty to one hundred and twenty tons landing 20,- 000 quintals of fish in 1855. The Bucksport fishery began to decline after 1858.

Vinal Haven and North Haven have always occupied prominent places in the fisheries of Maine. The Labrador fisheries of Vinal Haven which began in 1804 were continued until 1840. The Magdalen herring industry began in 1830 and continued without interruption for twentyeight years. Vinal Haven marketed $70,000 worth of dried fish in 1855. Three years previous to the opening of the Civil War from ninety to one hundred sail of vessels were owned in this place, and about forty at North Haven. About 1850, larger vessels were introduced into the fisheries of North Haven which gave an impetus to the fisheries of the town so that they soon outrivaled those of Vinal Haven. Some of their vessels were engaged in the codfishery in the spring and in the mackerel fishery during the summer.

By 1861 their vessels followed the mackerel fishery during the entire season, going South in the spring and following the fish as they migrated into northern waters. The shore towns from Matinicus to Portland were active in pursuing the industries of the sea. Matinicus was a favorite resort for herring for years. By 1840, ten thousand boxes of herring were being packed yearly for the Boston market. Bristol had twenty-five vessels engaged in fishing in 1830. Later the place became the center of the menhaden industry of Maine, the first oil and guano factory for the use of menhaden being built at Bristol in 1864.

Between 1830 and 1840 Monhegan cured annually 9,000 quintals of fish. The mackerel fishery was carried on from the place through the Civil War. The smoking of Magdalen herring was carried on at Damariscotta from 1830 to 1845. North Boothbay sent eight or ten vessels to the codfishing grounds of Labrador in 1844. The fishing business began at Wiscasset in 1822, and was successfully prosecuted until the Civil War. At that time from 30 to 35 bankers and an equal number of shore boats were fitted at Wiscasset. The citizens of Southport successively tried their fortunes in the herring, cod and mackerel fisheries. Previous to the war of 1812 Georgetown, an island on the eastern boundary of the Kennebec River, had twenty-five vessels employed in the bank fishery. The town quickly recovered from the effects of the war. In 1843, between 25,000 and 30,000 quintals of fish were cured here. Both the inshore and the deep-sea fisheries increased in importance during this period. The merchants of the town bought fish from the neighboring towns of Westport, Woolwich and Phippsburg. In 1868, Georgetown handled $250,000 worth of fishery products.

Portland early became a center for the fisheries as well as for other maritime commerce. Shore and deep-sea fishing were carried on by her fishermen; vessels from other places resorted here to be fitted out for the sea ; cargoes of fish were brought to her merchants from the shore towns; the shipping trade between Portland and the West Indies increased during this century, especially as more cod was packed in ' 'drums 1 ' for southern markets. Portland was a trade center, as it is now, for the fishermen of Maine. In a single year previous to 1841, 45,000 barrels of mackerel were packed here. In the year 1864 there were 27,766 barrels packed at Portland, a quantity second only to the output of Gloucester.

The state of the fisheries of Maine in 1840 shows that the business was carried on most extensively in Lincoln County, on the middle coast, and in Washington, the easternmost county. The counties of Hancock, Waldo and York ranked next in importance. There were in all 3,610 men employed in the fisheries ; capital was invested to the amount of $526,- 967; the products of the fisheries consisted of 279,156 quintals of dried and smoked fish, 54,071 barrels of pickled fish, 118,851 gallons of oil, whalebone and other products amounting to the value of $2,351.

In 1850 there were 37,218 tons employed in the codfishery of Maine, and 12,046 tons employed in the mackerel fishery.

Of the total 95,616 tons employed in the codfishery of the country in 1851, the amount of the State of Maine was 45,528 tons. The condition of the fisheries of the State for the year 1859 shows that in the codfishery there were 1,269 vessels of an aggregate tonnage of 63,477, carrying crews to the number of 8,883 men, and in the mackerel fishery there were 163 vessels of an aggregate tonnage of 9,814 tons, carrying 1,304 men. The fisheries of the State in 1859 had a total of 1,432 vessels, of a tonnage of 73,291 tons, carrying 10,187 men.

At the close of the Civil War the fisheries were prosperous in the State of Maine, probably beyond any other period to that date. But the principal branches of fishing cod, mackerel, menhaden and herring were on the verge of a change, cod and mackerel fishing to decrease materially, herring and menhaden fishing to disappear almost entirely. The new industry, that of canning lobsters and other products of the sea, had already taken the initial step towards developing in prominence and economic value.

The fisheries of New Hampshire do not appear to have risen to any place of prominence after the war of 1812. In 1840, the quantity of fish caught, and smoked or dried in the State was 28,257 quintals, and of pickled fish, 1,715 barrels. There were 399 men employed in the fisheries and capital invested to the amount of $59,680.

The records of the value of the fishery products of New Hampshire in the Portsmouth custom house are wanting prior to 1867. The custom returns for that year, which are the most accessible for the period, place the total value of all fish products of New Hampshire for 1867 at $73,853.

A review of the fisheries of Massachusetts towns shows that, like the State of Maine, almost every place bordering on the water front of the state was actively engaged in some branch of the industry during a part, if not all, of the period from 1818 to 1866. Newburyport held a prominent place in the cod and mackerel fisheries throughout the period. Until 1820, it was second only to Boston in the extent of the mackerel fishery, and for twenty years after it occupied third place among Massachusetts fishing towns. The number of barrels of mackerel packed in the town in 1831 was 36,424. During the Civil War there were 7,500 barrels packed annually. In 1835, Newburyport had 41 vessels of about fifty tons each in the codfishery, and 125 vessels engaged in mackereling ; the latter number had fallen off to ninety in 1851. There were between 40 and 50 vessels engaged in the Labrador fishery in 1850, and 60 vessels there in 1860. Fishermen from this town used the water telescope for locating schools of cod on the shallow bottoms and a seine for catching the fish after locating them.

The fishermen of Beverly centered their attention on the codfishery. The mackerel fishery never rose to a place of importance. As early as 1832 there were between 40 and 45 fishing vessels belonging to the town. Seven years later the number had risen to 49, averaging seventy-four tons each, the aggregate value, excluding the outfit, being $100,000. These vessels employed 306 Beverly hands and 112 others. The aggregate bounty on vessels owned in Beverly in 1839 was $17,040.

The value of fishery products for the year 1845 was $85,424. At the middle of the century there were 75 vessels from Beverly engaged in fishing, manned by 1,200 to 1,400 fishermen, mostly of New England birth. Subsequently, the fishery declined slowly, except for a short period of revival during the last three years of the war. In 1869, twenty-seven schooners employed 350 men, who caught 32,000 quintals of cod and halibut, valued at $200,000.

Salem played an unimportant part in the fisheries. The town was fifth in the State in the amount of mackerel packed in 1820, and in 1825, the amount for the latter year being 11,460 barrels. In 1836, there were only fourteen vessels, carrying 130 men, engaged in the fisheries. The value of the product of the codfishery for the year was $16,552, and of mackerel, $21,450. Only three vessels were engaged in the codfishery in 1845.

Marblehead, ranking first for years previous to the Revolution, took a less prominent place in the fisheries after 1818. In 1829, about fifty vessels averaging sixty tons fitted for bank fishing. Fifty-seven vessels in the cod and mackerel fisheries are recorded for 1831, carrying 412 men. The value of the catch was $160,490. A writer of the time estimates that this amount gave to each of the men on an average, after all expenses are deducted, $214 for eight months' fishing. The most prosperous season for Marblehead was in 1839 when there were 98 fishing vessels, only three of which were under fifty tons burden. Six years later, when the period of decline had set in, the 65 fishing vessels of the town had a tonnage of 5,039 tons and 463 hands employed. These vessels landed 40,500 quintals of cod, which with other products of the sea had a total value of $123,256.

The number of vessels had fallen off to 48 in 1856 ; but the value of the catch, which was smaller than that of 1845, was $163,656. During the war the number of vessels in the codfishery declined from sixty-one in 1862 to twenty-five in 1866.

Since the Revolution, Boston has held high rank as a center for the commerce of the fishing industries. Down to the middle of the century, at least, Boston was the chief mart for the sale of dried fish, and a resort for fishermen of all classes for outfits. A large portion of the imports of fishery products into the country centered in Boston.2 Between 1810 and 1826, more than half of the total mackerel catch of the State was brought to Boston to be sold. From 1804 to 1840, excepting one year when GJoucester took the lead, Boston held first place in Massachusetts in the number of barrels of mackerel inspected yearly. During the thirty years from 1821 to 1851, the imports of dried and pickled fish into the port of Boston consisted of 47,782 quintals of dried fish, valued at $111,643, and 379,587 barrels of pickled fish, valued at $2,126,128. For the eight years from 1843 to 1851, the exports of American caught fish from Boston consisted of 1 Niles' National Register, Vol. Ixx, p. 21. 2 Hunt, Vol. xxiii, pp. 487-88. THE GROWTH ALONG THE COAST 187 990,489 quintals of dried fish valued at $2,616,845, and 90,321 barrels of pickled fish valued at $370,907. The total value of exports of both American caught and foreign caught fish from Boston for the eight years was $3,453,063.l Information regarding the fishing fleet of Boston is incomplete. For the year 1855 Boston ranked third in the State in the extent to which its citizens pursued the mackerel fisheries, there being in that year 89 vessels, of a tonnage of 7,100, engaged in fishing, with 1,000 men in the crews. The amount of capital invested was $260,000, and the value of the product was $317,000.

No vessels were engaged in the codfishery. The towns of Hingham and Cohasset carried on a thriving business in the mackerel fishery during most of this period. Part of the time Hingham ranked third in the State in the amount of the catch. Her fishing interests were carried on, in 1851, by 500 of her citizens in 37 vessels. The Plymouth district, which includes Scituate, Duxbury, Kingston and Plymouth, had, on an average, sixtyeight vessels in the codfishery from 1818 to 1866. The smallest number was 48 in 1826, when 24,000 quintals of cod were taken ; the largest number was 94, in 1839, when 63,763 quintals of cod were taken. The mackerel fishermen of Plymouth caught 5,520 barrels of mackerel in 1830. This branch of fishery declined after 1838 until it became of no consequence a decade later.

Wellfleet takes high rank among the communities whose people pursued the mackerel fishery. The business began in 1826, and its increase was rapid and steady. Some years as many as 100 schooners were in the fleet. In 1833, there were 12,811 barrels of mackerel inspected; in 1845, the number was 19,900 barrels ; in 1848, it reached 28,219 barrels. From 1845 to 1865, Wellfleet was generally next to Gloucester and Boston in the rank of mackerel fisheries. In 1860, the 75 schooners comprising her fleet were valued at $375,000. During the war the industry was prosecuted with excellent returns, the number of barrels of mackerel inspected being 111,944.

Freeman, in his History of Cape Cod, says, "In 1860, Provincetown might be pronounced beyond contradiction one of the most enterprising and flourishing towns in the country. The fisheries now, as ever, command much attention, and employ a great number of men and a very large amount of capital. These fisheries, it may be said, train a large number of the most experienced and intrepid mariners in the world." The fisheries were principally whale, cod, and mackerel. The character of the codfishery cannot be ascertained for the period of 1818 to 1866, it is, however, known to have been extensive and prosperous. In 1862, the number of vessels was about seventy-six, below what the former tonnage had been, and the aggregate of the catch was about 65,000 quintals. During the progress of the war the number of vessels increased; in 1867, the fleet numbered ninety-one, carrying 988 men. The catch for that season was 78,500 quintals of cod and 15,156 quintals of halibut. The mackerel fishery did not assume a position of great importance at Provincetown until between 1845 and 1850. The best year was in 1848, when 31,049 barrels were inspected. For a decade after 1859 Provincetown held third or fourth place among Massachusetts towns in the number of barrels of mackerel inspected. Chatham had 21 schooners employed in the fisheries in 1837, yielding 15,500 quintals of cod, valued at $46,500. Prior to 1845, the greater part of the fleet was engaged in codfishing. After this date the codfishery declined on account of the harbor filling with sand, which prevented the larger vessels from passing in and out easily. The mackerel fishery, employing smaller craft, increased as the codfishery fell off. The people of Dennis began to catch mackerel in 1836. Nine years later the town had from 50 to 70 vessels in the fishery. The fisheries increased and prospered year after year. Harwich carried on a prosperous business in the mackerel fishery from 1846 to 1866. Other towns on the south coast of the State were engaged in the fisheries, notably Nantucket and New Bedford in the whale fishery. Cod, mackerel, shad and oyster fisheries were carried on in this section, but their importance was not considered seriously by the people until the whaling industry began to decline.

Gloucester has been left until the last among Massachusetts fishing towns in order that its importance as a fishing port might be emphasized. In 1818, its fisheries were of minor consideration in comparison with some other towns. In 1866, Gloucester led all ports in the New World in the extent and importance of its fishing interests. This distinction has been held by the town ever since, notwithstanding the fact that an immense trade in fresh fish is carried on from Boston, and no account of American sea fisheries for the last fifty years is complete without frequent reference to the extent and importance of Gloucester 's fishing interests.

The story of the cod far antedates that of the mackerel; but none has a more absorbing interest than the mackerel fishery both for the importance of the industry and the methods pursued. The first trip for mackerel to salt was made by the schooner President, Captain Simeon Burnham, in 1818. Previous to this the fish was used principally as bait. Down to 1818, the Gloucester catch of mackerel was small and remained so until 1821, when 2,177 barrels of i Goode, Sec. II, pp. 729-734. 190 NEW ENGLAND FISHERIES the fish were inspected in that port. The total amount of mackerel previously inspected there was only 1,272 barrels. In 1822, Gloucester schooners first went to George's for mackerel, and, in 1830, the first vessel went to the Gulf of Saint Lawrence for the same purpose.

Mention is made of an immense school of mackerel which suddenly appeared on Middle Bank in 1825. For three days a fleet of about 200 vessels fished as continuously and as fast as nature would allow ; at the end of the third day the fish disappeared as mysteriously and as suddenly as they had come.1 A single jigger in that year, with a crew of eight men, caught 1,300 barrels of mackerel.2 The fish were in abundance again the following year and so continued until 1831, which was a record-breaking season.

During this period of great plenty, the vessels of the fleet averaged 800 barrels of fish a season. The boats at first were from 40 to 50 tons burden. As the industry became more assured in its permanency and was extended profitably to George's Bank and the Gulf of Saint Lawrence, the vessels increased in tonnage and the fleet in size.

Gloucester surpassed Boston in the extent of its mackerel fishery in 1840, and has held first rank ever since. During the period of the Reciprocity Treaty, 1854 to 1866, a very prosperous business was developed by Gloucester fishermen in the Gulf of Saint Lawrence, as the provisions of the treaty allowed American vessels to catch fish close inshore. Several hundred vessels were annually fitted out for the Bay, as the Gulf of Saint Lawrence is popularly designated. Often the mackerel were shipped home from there in Provincial vessels, thus allowing our fishing vessels to take two or more fares a season.8 The method of catching was still by hook and line, or jigging, as it was called. Bait was thrown from the vessel to draw the fish from the bottom and to attract them to the reach of the lines of the crew, who fished from the vessel's deck. Many vessels carried as many as 75 barrels of menhaden slivers, which were ground fine in mills for bait to be cast overboard to attract the fish.

The catch of the Gloucester mackerel fleet for 1831 was 69,756 barrels; for 1851, it was 81,627 barrels. The average catch for the years of the war, 1861 to 1865, was 131,432 barrels. The record year was 1864 when 154,938 barrels of mackerel were taken. The value of this catch for Gloucester was in the millions. There were 68,061 barrels of No. 1 mackerel, quoted at $30 per barrel, and 73,002 barrels of No. 2 mackerel worth $20 per barrel. Based on these prices the value to the town of the mackerel industry for 1864 alone was in excess of $3,500,000.

The high-line stock for a vessel at the Gulf of Saint Lawrence in 1865 was made by the schooner Colonel Ellsworth, her net stock for a trip of five months being $13,728. This was the highest stock made by a schooner to that date. Among the crew, the high-liner's share was $558.8

The Gloucester fishery for cod on the Grand Bank of Newfoundland was at a very low mark from 1804 to 1819. In the latter year a company was formed with $50,000 stock for the purpose of reviving the industry, but after operating unsuccessfully for about three years the attempt was abandoned. The Newfoundland codfishery thereafter did not become of marked importance. In 1821, four schooners from the town made initial trips for cod to the Gulf of Saint Lawrence, returning with full fares near the first of July, after an absence of about two months. While these pioneers were in quest of cod in the Gulf, three other schooners were making attempts on George's Bank. As early as the middle of the previous century, Marblehead fishing vessels were accustomed to make trips to George's for cod. The vessels did not anchor, but drifted about on the fishing grounds. It was the prevailing belief that no vessel could anchor safely on George's for fear of being overwhelmed and sunk at anchor by the strong current that is found on the Bank. The three Gloucester schooners kept close together for mutual assistance if any danger arose. Finally the crew of one of the vessels got up courage to cast anchor, only to weigh it again immediately.

For a number of years the codfishery did not progress. In 1827, the product of the fishery was 66,133 quintals and 2,204 barrels of oil. The offshore codfishery of 1829 was in a depressed state. The business had become of little value to the owners of the fishing vessels, due largely to competition of foreign fishermen and higher rates of bounty paid to them. The falling off of foreign trade also meant the loss of profitable returns formerly made on cargoes of sugar, wine, and other imports, brought by vessels on their return trips from selling their fish abroad. Then, too, the remarkable development of the mackerel fishery turned much capital into the newer and more remunerative occupation. The period of decline in the codfishery did not change for the better before 1841.

In the meantime, other kinds of fishing were profitably pursued. The shore fishery of Gloucester was of considerable importance about 1832, when 799 men were employed. The catch of 63,112 quintals of cod was valued at $157,780, and there was a government bounty of $25,172. As early as 1819, halibut had been found on Middle Bank.1 The first trip to George's for halibut was made by the schooner Nautilus in 1830.1 The codfishery revived somewhat, and the halibut fishery became of importance as a permanent business about 1835. The value of cod for 1837 was $186,516. Seven years later the fisheries of Gloucester employed 249 vessels, carrying over 1,200 men, and secured 86,315 quintals of fish. In 1846, there were 220 vessels in the fleet, and 1,850 fishermen.

The railroad connecting Gloucester with Boston was completed in 1846. This means of communication was of immediate and lasting value to the fisheries of Cape Ann. Previous to this time Boston had been the market for fresh fish. Vessels did not then carry ice at sea to preserve the fish, but some of them were fitted with water-tight compartments amidship. By boring holes through the bottom of the vessel into the compartment the free access of water was secured, in which the halibut were kept alive until the vessel reached market. In 1848, a company was formed at Gloucester for the purpose of making the town a shipping port for fresh halibut. The company failed the first year ; they had agreed to buy all halibut furnished by the fishermen; the season's catch proved to be exceptionally large, so that markets could not be found to take the product that was forced upon the company.

The total value of the fishery products of Gloucester in 1847 was $589,354. The number of vessels employed was 287, of which 126 were less than forty tons burden; the total tonnage was 12,354 tons; the number of men employed was 1,681 and 186 boys.

During the twenty years following 1847, the fisheries of Gloucester developed rapidly. More than 2,000 men were employed in the industry in 1851. The value of the halibut catch that year was $120,000. The introduction of frozen herring from Newfoundland in 1856 for bait in the George's codfishery was a great stimulus to the prosecution of that fishery. The herring furnished excellent bait for the school of cod that appears on George 's in winter. There were twenty firms in the town that owned schooners engaged in the mackerel fishery or fitted out other schooners for the business. In 1859, three hundred and one schooners formed the fishing fleet of the place, manned by 3,454 men and 134 boys. The value of the products of the fishery that year was $1,276,704, exclusive of the value of the herring trade with Newfoundland, which was worth $250,000 more. According to the census report of Massachusetts for the year 1865, the fisheries of Gloucester employed 358 vessels with an aggregate tonnage of 25,670 tons, and the value of the products was $3,319,458. This is a remarkable record of growth, for the value of the fishing industry of Gloucester had increased fivefold, or more, within eighteen years. The products of the fishery were sold principally in Boston, New York and Philadelphia.

The status of the Massachusetts cod and mackerel fisheries for 1855, and the relative standing of the principal fishing towns show that the number of vessels engaged in the fisheries of the State that year was 1,050, of a tonnage of 71,372, manned by 9,756 men. The amount of capital invested in the industry was $3,638,041, the value of the production for 1855 was $2,753,535, and the gross earnings for the year were nearly 76 per cent of the capital invested. The extent and value of the fisheries of Gloucester surpassed the combined products of Boston and Provincetown, the next towns in importance in the State.3 In 1859, Massachusetts had 1,138 vessels employed in the codfishery, aggregating a tonnage of 56,919 tons, and carrying crews of 7,966 men. The mackerel fishery employed 284 vessels, with a tonnage of 17,038 tons, and crews of 2,272 men. The total number of vessels engaged in the cod and mackerel fishery was 1,422, of an aggregate tonnage of 74,957 tons, and carrying 10,238 fishermen. In addition, Massachusetts had a fleet of 514 vessels in the whale fishery, carrying 12,336 men.

The records of the fishery industries of the other states of New England are very unsatisfactory. The fishermen of Rhode Island carried on a business from time to time catching menhaden and developing oyster beds. Owing to the high price of paint oils in 1812, the inhabitants of the State began to use fish oil in place of the more costly material. The process of extracting oil from fish was improved in 1820 by first boiling the fish in kettles. Ten years later further progress was made by the inception of steam-cooking. Between 1835 and 1840, the refuse parts of menhaden, known as chum, became of value as fertilizer. The introduction of the purse-seine for taking the fish, probably before 1850, was revolutionary and stimulated the industry greatly. Between 1855 and 1860, presses for separating the oil and water from the chum came into use and were of additional economic importance.

The practice of introducing oysters from Chesapeake Bay and laying them down in the shore waters of Rhode Island dates from the early part of this period. The oyster industry in Rhode Island flourished with increasing interest until the Civil War, when it decreased principally because the southern supply of oysters for planting was cut off by the opening of hostilities. The value of the oyster fishery of the State for 1860 is placed at $382,170, by Prof. Goode. The general fisheries of the State for that year yielded 118,611 barrels of menhaden and other fish for fertilizer, worth $27,817 ; about $25,000 worth of food fish ; and $11,692 worth of clams and other shell fish. According to the State census for 1865, the product of the fisheries of Rhode Island that year was as follows: fish seined for manure and oil, 154,468 barrels, worth $126,035 ; fish caught for food, 2,462,360 pounds, worth $121,094 ; 31,697 bushels of clams, 72,895 bushels of oysters, and 42,900 pounds of lobsters, having a total value of $118,655. The aggregate value of the fish products of Rhode Island for 1865 was $365,784.

The Connecticut River seems always to have been famous for its shad fishery, which was pursued with profit as far up its course as Hadley, Massachusetts. It is reported that in 1801 there were as many as fourteen wharves at South Hadley, where shad were taken by means of scoop nets and seines, sometimes as many as 1,200 at a single haul. In 1848, it was not an uncommon thing for a man to take from 2,000 to 3,000 in a day. The method of pound fishing was introduced in 1849, after which the fishery increased all along the coast.

Menhaden were caught and the oil extracted as early as 1850 or 1852 at an establishment at Fort Hale, New Haven Harbor. The discovery of the process of extracting the oil by steam was claimed by a Connecticut man as early as 1852 or 1853.l In 1840, Connecticut was second only to Massachusetts in the amount of capital invested in the fisheries. It is probable, however, that a large part of the capital was employed in the whale fishery, which was carried on principally from New London.

The catch of menhaden for Connecticut can not be ascertained for any town or for any period of years. In 1851, five million of the fish were caught at Westbrook, but the industry subsequently declined. In the earlier half of the century, salmon fisheries were carried on in the rivers of the State, but to a less extent than either the shad or the menhaden fisheries.

Fair Haven, Connecticut, was one of the first places in New England to import oysters from New Jersey, and later from Virginia, to be transplanted in northern waters for additional growth. The Virginia trade began between 1830 and 1840, and there was a rapid development of the industry. The oyster establishments of Fair Haven had branch houses in the principal inland cities as far west as Chicago and St. Louis. In 1857-58, from 200 to 250 schooners were employed in supplying the establishments of Connecticut with clams from the Chesapeake. In 1850, one of the more enterprising merchants of Fair Haven transferred his business to warehouses nearer the source of supply of oysters and opened branch houses at Baltimore.

Others followed the lead, so that it came about, according to Ernest Ingersoll, that all the great Baltimore firms of old standing originated in Fair Haven. The result was that the oyster trade retrograded ; new changes in method came into use, and different results followed.

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